MSc Students' Dissertation Titles and Abstracts

The Prevalence of Ethiopians Maids in Sudanese Households

By: Mai Khamis Elmurad, 2013

Supervised by: Wani Tombe Lado



The study was conducted during the period between August to November 2012. It was aimed to raise awareness to the reasons for the spread of Ethiopians labor to work in Sudanese households which has assumed a number of assumptions, which included the following: the Sudanese women prefer Ethiopian comes with a basic educational level from their homeland which makes it very difficult to communicate effectively.

The method used in the study was descriptive and analytical approach for analyzing data, which was collected through questionnaires and interviews specially designed to this study, which has been collected using books, references, previous research and online recourses related to the subject of the study. The study samples consisted of 40 people, 50% of Ethiopian domestic workers who work with Sudanese households and 50% of married Sudanese in Khartoum State.

The study findings consists of a number of results, the most important reasons for the spread of Ethiopian domestic workers with Sudanese households; a higher proportion is due to availability of Ethiopian labor in Sudan, and some women consider it as showing of luxury of social progress. Reasons behind the arrival of Ethiopian to Sudan are economic repellent from the country of immigration to work and raise money.


The Challenges for Sudanese Women’s Participation in Decision Making within Political Parties


By: Nuha Ahmed Mohamed Elnager, 2013

Supervised by: Nuria Brufau Alvira 


Women represent a broad segment of society, more than half of the population of Sudan. In spite of that they face many challenges that hinder their participation in decision-making within the political institutions, especially within political parties, and particular at their higher levels. Political parties’ role is not only the electoral competition, but in organizing and activating the forces of the society to play their role to organize democracy. This study looks at the possibility of identifying these challenges to take appropriate measures to ensure women’s equal access to full participation in power and decision-making positions, to ensure improvement of women’s capacity in politics and leadership.

The research relies on a qualitative approach through personal interviews of members of two political parties of long tradition in Sudan: the Umma party and the communist party, based on a review the political parties’ profiles in the Political Parties Affairs Council and some researches on women’s participation in political decision-making to find out to what real extent women reach high positions and the official and unofficial challenges they face in doing so.

In our findings all the answers to our questions have been analyzed, we have to bear in mind that our society is dominated by the patriarchal system which is controlled men and organized for their benefit. One important finding of the study shows that women do not participate actively in decision making, because their participation is not commensurate with their number. Despite this fact the study assured that women’s participation in decision making is very important and necessary and their participation makes a big difference in the quality of the decisions as they become more comprehensive, gender sensitive and more acceptable. The study suggests some recommendations to address the problems and challenges of women’s access to decision-making positions.


Multiple Perceptions of Sudanese Women in Khartoum State towards Female Genital Mutilation/Cutting


By: Asha Osman Mahmoud, 2012

Supervised by: Nafisa M. Badri


Female Genital Mutilation/Circumcision (FGM/C) is a terminology used to mean a variety of traditional practices that involve the partial or total removal of the external female genitalia fundamentally for socio-cultural reasons mostly in African societies. This study examines the perceptions of Sudanese women towards this practice including ordinary women, activists and women in decision making offices. This study was carried out in Khartoum, the capital city of Sudan and an exclusive qualitative study employed such methods as individual interviews; key informant interviews and one focus group discussion. The study also made use of secondary data.

The findings of this undertaking exposed that there is unanimous opinion against FGM/C among Sudanese women with the perceived negative consequences of the practice playing the biggest role for being against the continuation of the practice. A lot of activists are actively engaged with local and international non-governmental organizations to eliminate to practice and involve local communities in raising awareness against FGM/C despite resistance by some cultural loyalist and other who believe female circumcision is Islamic practice.

This dissertation looked into the factors that motivate the continuation of the practice and traditional reasons had the most resounding influence. The governments’ role is not as resilient as that of the non-governmental organizations, activists and local communities who are united against the practice. Through the various efforts employed by these groups positive change has been observed to hinder the practice in Sudan; however total eradication of FGM/C is still a long way off.

Keywords: Female Genital Mutilation, Circumcision, Cutting, Human Rights, Perceptions, Traditional Practice, Sudan, Politicians, Activists


Women’s Political Participation in Popular Committees in Khartoum State


By: Neimat Abubaker, 2012

Supervised by: Nuria Brufau Alvira 


The strengthening of local governance is very important to enhance citizen’s participation and guarantee more and better responses to people’s needs at the local level. Governance hierarchy in Sudan is structured as a federal system with four levels. The states are divided into localities and the latter are divided into several Popular Committees. Popular Committees are the bodies responsible for monitoring services at the local level in Sudan. Building on the believe that working for effective women’s political participation at the lower levels will guarantee increasing in the quality and quantity of the women’s representatives. The main goal is to show the current picture of women’s work within Popular Committees and confirm whether women women’s quota is implemented at the local level. In addition, the findings of this research will help the groups interested in women’s empowerment to find out how they can support women’s representatives.

Collecting data for this research includes interviewing men who are heads of popular committees, and women participations that identified the factors that limit women’s participation. Findings that explain the criteria of the women’s representatives are presented in a quantitative way. The research not only examines the importance of supporting women to join decision-making bodies in order to raise women’s needs but also women’s empowerment and engenderment of the political sphere and information on gender inequality.

The research confirms that lack of training, lack of financial support and the absence of a unified women’s vision towards their issues as some of the reasons which affect women’s performance. The dissertation also discussed the successfulness of quota implementation, despite the fact that most of the people understand quotas as maximums not minimums as they should, and it shows the debate on the participation of housewives and women with low education to participate in popular committees.

Based on the results of the research and participants claims, some recommendations are provided: enhancing partnership between local bodies, political parties and women’s organizations, ensuring the representatives received adequate financial support, and strengthening the advocacy on the importance of having more women at local level.


Microfinance: A Tool for Women Empowerment: Case Study of Women Beneficiaries of Family Bank, Khartoum North, Khartoum State


By: Elizabeth Richard Kenyi Jino, 2012

Supervised by: Samia Alnager


The objectives of the study are to find out, why and how, women access microfinance from the Family Bank and how the access to microfinance promotes women empowerment. The research was carried out in Khartoum State, Eastern Nile Locality. The primary data were collected by semi-structured interview. 15 women were randomly chosen from the clients of Family Bank in the area of study. They are women who have accessed loans and invested it.

The research findings indicate that, women were interested in borrowing loans in order to cover the deficits in their personal and households’ incomes. The women access information on opportunities for microfinance from different sources including the neighbors, relatives, workmates friends from the Family Bank. The majority of them were able to repay the loans; however, a few of them defaulted. Overall, these women benefited from these loans financially, economically and socially.

Achievements of some of these women have been recognized by their communities and they are considered as role-models. Some of these women have joined the ruling political party and have become politically active. The access to increased income has contributed tremendously to changes in their decision-making roles and this means that, women are able to empower themselves. But these women’s achievements were not entirely due to their access to increased income from investing the microfinance loans because they had other sources of income. Therefore, it is concluded that it is difficult to link microfinance directly to empowerment of women. Another important conclusion is that the banking policy and procedures constrain access of poor and illiterate women to microfinance.

Recommendations for further research and interventions were given for improved understanding and effectiveness of microfinance. It is recommended that microfinance policies should concider women issues and the banking policies should be gender-sensitive.


Challenges and Prospects of the Sudanese Women Parliamentarian Caucus in the National Parliament


By: Maria Abbas Mustafa Ahmed, 2012

Supervised by: Atta Elbatahani


In the current National Assembly (2010-2015), women constitute 24.6% of the total number of the parliamentarian which is the highest number and proportion ever. With this level of representation, the Inter- Parliamentary Union (IPU) places Sudan 46th position out of 190 countries in terms of women’s representation. This improvement in women’s representation was a result of the implementing of a 25% women quota during the last General Elections of April 2010. As quotas are often justified with reference to their anticipated effects on the representation of ‘women’s interests’ in the policy-making, as well on democratic outcomes, this study examined and analyzed the consequences of women’s increased presence on the culture of the legislature, policy agenda and public policy output.

Data have been collected from secondary and primary sources. The secondary data were collected from previous studies, references, papers and reports related to the subject. The primary data were mainly collected by fieldwork, based on face-to face interviews with 30 female members of parliament (MPs) in the National Assembly, questionnaire, and observation of some parliamentary sessions and reading of the documented proceedings of other sessions of the National Assembly.

The study shows that the women MPs feel obligated to act for women as a group. Their increased numbers have increased their confidence and solidarity which allowed them to add new issues to the policy agenda. Issues of poverty alleviation, reproductive health, female genital mutilation (FGM), early marriage of girls and support of elderly houses are some among new issues that women brought to the parliamentary table. However, women MPs increased representation has had little effect on distinct women-oriented policy-related outcomes that promote women empowerment and advance gender equality.

Keywords: Critical Mass, Quota, Representation, Caucus, Agenda, Policy Outcome, Women Movement


Addressing Rural Women’s Reproductive Health Needs Under Decentralization


By: Ainebyoona Costance Conie, 2012


The research was carried out to examine the factors that affect rural women’s access to and utilization of reproductive health services under decentralization. The research adopted a qualitative feminist approach and used qualitative methods of data collection including interviews, direct observation and focus group discussion. The study was conducted in Rukungiri health sub district and random selection of health centers at the level of health centre II, III, IV was done in purposively selected sub counties of Nyakagyeme and Kebisoni. Sample selection of respondents and participants the focus group discussion was purposively done targeting health workers and officials involved in health service delivery as well as women of reproductive age within the study area.

The findings demonstrate that not only is women’s access to and utilization of reproductive health services constrained by economic, social, and cultural factors. The study found out that factors within the institution of health service delivery are crucial determinants in the utilization of reproductive health services. Although it was assumed that decentralization of the health services would lead to an improvement in the delivery of the health services thereby increasing access, the findings show the contrary. Women are still not fully accessing and utilizing services at the government health centers due to the limited capacity of these health centers (drug stock outs, lack of equipment, health workers attitudes, limited funding and poor information dissemination mechanisms).

The findings have an implication not only for rural women but also for health sector policies, financing and personal management mechanisms. The findings will also be of interest to a broad audience including nongovernmental organizations involved in activism and advocacy, the findings will also be of interest to a broad audience including nongovernmental organizations involved in activism and advocacy, the government and communities.

Keywords: Access to and utilization, reproductive health services, decentralization, health sub district


The Experience of Ethiopian Diplomat Women within the Country and Abroad


By: Tsion Ayalew Tekle, 2012

Supervised by: Dr. Hirut Tefere


Although research on women’s concerning their equal participation in their public and private life has grown over the last few decades, there has been almost nothing on women who serve in the Ministry of Foreign Affairs. It mainly focuses on their experience within their country and abroad in the mission. The study is divided into five chapters that will start with the research orientation, conceptual analysis, method adopted, and presenting and analysis of findings along with final remarks. Reflection on the influences and experiences of diplomat women is essential to understanding the factors that have enabled then to obtain and sustain high-position in nontraditional career fields. The purpose of this qualitative study was to explore the lives of diplomat women in their diplomatic career in an attempt to find out and document their experience, no matter whether it is unchallenging or tough in a predominantly male field of diplomacy. Five diplomat women were interviewed to reflect their views in an effort to recognize the impact of personal journeys they have had walking as diplomats. Reflection of the experiences of the diplomat women has revealed and produced various encouraging and unconstructive discoveries which is articulated in chapter four.

Keywords: Diplomat Women, Foreign Affairs, Diplomatic Career, Experience, Gender Roles


Intra-Household Bargaining and Time Use: Women Working in the Private Sector


By: Salma Soliman Mohamed Soliman, 2012

Supervised by: Prof. Wani Tombe


This research is about household bargaining and time use among women working in the private sector who have a regular income and high education levels. It has been largely assumed that women’s income and education levels contribute to greater autonomy and more decision-making and bargaining powers within the household. However, in most cases when income and household expenditures are shared, the decision-making and bargaining powers are equal. The study aims to investigate whether income and education levels increase women’s bargaining power in term of time allocated to domestic work, and their decision making-making with regard to resource allocation and distribution. It also, aims to establish correlations between education and income levels and bargaining patterns, as well as to explore factors that influence bargaining and decision-making powers within and beyond the household.

For this purpose, a triangulation o qualitative and quantitative method has been used in the investigations, which targeted 20 women working in the private sector in Khartoum State. The study used in-depth and structured interviews that contained quantitative aspects as well. Content analysis was used to analyze data and a matrix was used to generate correlations between respondents’ narratives and the quantitative data.

The results reveal that household division of labor is mediated by gender roles and inequality, and it is unequally distributed between husband and wife. However, the wife’s participation in household expenditure increases her decision-making power and her access to, and control of property ownership in the household. On the other hand, the influence of regular income and education on women’s bargaining is interrupted by internal and external factors such as social and cultural norms and values, and more importantly, the inequality in gender power relations that characterizes the institution of marriage and material relationships. The findings also highlighted that the greater bargaining power a women has, the better her well-being, because she will have more time to dedicate to her health, self-development, rest and self-care.

Keywords: Bargaining power, decision-making power, division of labor patterns, household bargaining, household governance, time use


Women Awareness of the Interim National Constitution of 2005 in the River Nile State

By: Hanan Elamin Mohammed Elamin, 2010

Supervised by: Balghis Badri 


The study was conducted in River Nile State mainly at Atbara and Al Damer cities during the period April 2008 to May 2010. The study sample Consisted of (70) persons of two elite groups. The first represent university Students, lectures as well as members in civil society organizations, and lawyers. The second group consists of men and women who are member in the Legislative Assembly, parliament and Legislative Council in the state. The Knowledge about their rights on the State Constitution, to determine the available constitutional rights that is important for women’s life, to identify the extent of  women participation  in the development  of  the  State constitution, to  evaluate the factors  that hinder   or  promote   women’s  participation and extend   of  awareness  and   to  examine   women’s    visions   for   the   future constitutions process of development  and the  main gender  related  issue  that should include.  The primary   data   was   collected   through   the   use of questionnaire.  The primary   data   from   journals, articles, reports, books relevant papers of different source from  internet.  The primary   data   was analyzed by Statistical Package for Social Science (SPSS).

The main results of the study were:  Non- awareness of legal   rights prevent women to practice their rights. Subordination of women to patriarchal systems and   the   weakness of   their   participation   in decision- making   resulted   in inequality.  Illiteracy and lack of educational opportunities for women prevent women to acquire experience   and participate in public life “social, political economical”.  Weakness of women   participation    in making   decisions     and Political parties and civil society    organizations,   led   to   reduce    women’s recognizing   of   their constitutional rights. The study recommends  the  necessity of   solidarity  among  the  activist  women  at  the  local  and  national levels to exchange   experiences so as to motivate the awareness of rights.


العنف ضد المرأة : الحرمان من التعليم في منطقة شمقنا بولاية شمال كردفان  


الباحث: ازاهر أحمد السيد, 2009

المشرف: علوية إبراهيم


يهدف البحث إلى اختيار الوعى بأهمية التهليم لدي المرأة واثره على التنمية والتعرف على المعوقات التى تواجه تعليم المرأة في منطقة شمقنا ، استخدم البحث المنهج الكمي والنوعي ، أوضحت النتائج أن هنالك اختلافات مرتبطة بالنوع من أسباب حرمان البنت من التعليم وذلك لعدم وعى الاسر والمجتمع بأهمية تعليم البنات والزواج المبكر ، يوصي البحث بأهمية التثقيف الصحي وتوعية المجتمع الريفي بمضار العادات والتقاليد وحل مشكلة مياة الشرب في المنطقة ومساعدة الاسر الفقيرة في تغطية نفقات التعليم .


الواصفات :المرأة : العنف, التعليم, تعليم البنات, تعليم المرأة, العنف : التنمية


وعى المرأة السودانية بحقوقها الدستورية بولاية الخرطوم 


الباحث : حنان فيصل الطيب حسن, 2009

المشرف : بلقيس يوسف بدري 



يهدف البحث إلى التحقق من مدي معرفة النساء بحقوقهن الدتورية ومواثيق حقوق الانسان والتعرف على الاسباب التى تؤثر على وعى المراة بحقوقها وممارستها لتلك الحقوق والتعرف على مدي تأثير التعليم والعمل على وعى المرأة بحقوقها والتعرف على مدي مشاركة النساء في وضع الدستور السابق ، توصل البحث إلى أن نسبة المعرفة والإطلاع بالدستور كانت وسط هذه الفئات مقارنه بالدراسات السابقة ومعرفة غالبية النساء بحقوقهن في الدستور القومي وعدم إطلاعهن بالمواثيق والمعاهدات خاصة سيدوا والبروتوكول الافريقي وضعف مشاركة النساء في الانتخابات وفي الاحزاب السياسية مما أضعف مشاركتها في عملية وضع الدستور وهذا نسبة لتداخل عومل اقتصادية واجتماعية وثقافية وسياسية أدت إلى ضعف في مستوى لااطلاع بالحقوق الواردة في الدستور .


الواصفات : المرأة : الوعى : الحقوق الدستورية ، الدساتير المتعاقبة ، الفجوة النوعية ، الدستور


الأثار الإجتماعي للفقر على المرأة بجنوب الدمازين ولاية النيل الازرق


الباحث : تيسير موسي رشاد, 2009

المشرف : مى عز الدين


المستخلص :

يهدف البحث إلى الوقوف على مشكلة الفقر واثاره الإجتماعية على المرأة في منطقة جنوب الدمازين وتحديد مؤشرات الفقر وسط النساء في المنطقة والوقوف على أهم العوامل المؤثرة على فقر النساء ، اعتمد البحث على المنهج الوصفي الإحصائي ، توصلت الدراسة إلى أن هنالك أسباب اجتماعية واقتصادية وسياسية أدت إلى الفقر بالمنطقة وهنالك أثر سالب للفقر على النساء في الصحة والتعليم والمستوى المعيشي وأن غالبية الفقراء من النساء ، يوصي البحث بتضمن المرأة في كل المشاريع التنموية التى تكافح الفقر بالمنطقة ورفع قدرات المرأة وتشجيعها على مواصلة التعليم وتعزيز اعتماد المرأة على الذات  ورفع وعى المرأة من أجل تغير المفاهيم واساليب التنشئة الإجتماعية .


الواصفات : الفقر ، النوع ، مفاهيم الفقر ، الاأثار الإجتماعية ، الأثار الموجبة ، تانيث الفقر ، التنمية البشرية ، النيل الأزرق الدمازين .


The Gender Dimension among Mobile Phone Users of the Zain Telecommunication Company in Sudan


By: Gihan Hassan Ahmed, 2009

Supervised by: Samia Elnagar


This research is conducted to measure the ender dimension among the mobile phone users of Zain Telecommunication Company in Sudan, the response behind the use of mobiles, how the benefits are different and the mobile phone affect on the three gender roles, the productive, reproductive and community roles and also the gender relationship how they are affected by such activities. The research is undertaken in Khartoum state with a purposive sample selected randomly from the Zain active subscribers who are widely spread all over the country. The information was collected through questionnaire by telephone interviews.

The most highlighted findings of the research include: the perception towards the assigned productive and reproductive roles to women and men is not yet changed; the gender dimention clearly presents in the care of the females about hand set shape, color and size rather than males who are interested in the functionality of the hand set; the patriarchal ideology is mainly found trough all men’s responds that the authority is male right (receive calls freely), on the other side from the females responds that using the mobile freely in their families depends on gender and age.

The main recommendations of the research are: for Zain and other telecommunication companies should consider reducing coast of services to help more people, specifically the poor to access services (were women are the poorer), In addition, they should improve their data-base making it gender-sensitive. The research also recommends another similar research should be conducted to have more holistic vision on the research subject.


Discrepancies in Basic Education: Khartoum State


By: Atfaa Abdullah Mohammed Badri, February 2009

Supervised by: Amna Mohammed Bedri 


The aim of this study is to examine the discrepancies existing in Basic Education in Khartoum state, the study also focuses on the relation between Performance and learning environment. The objectives of the study indicate and highlight the variation among the schools and examine schools’ activities and the learning environment.

The methodology used for data collection was observation check lists for10 Schools representing the possible varieties of schools existing in Khartoum State and questionnaires for 30 teachers and 30 parents of the same schools. The study covered private, international and government schools. The data was then analyzed and interpreted to illustrate the linkage between the Learning environment and the performance and to reflect the situation in the different schools.

The   schools of suitable environment have high performance and success  rates  and  the  schools  of  poor  and  deteriorating  environments  have  low Performance   and success rates.  The   findings of the study revealed   wide discrepancies in basic education. It also showed the deterioration in government schools as the result of low government spending.

In conclusion some gaps were cited and some ideas for addressing the issue by shared responsibility were recommended.


Violence against Adolescent High Schools Girls in Omdurman Locality


By: Mona A. Ghani Ahmed Saad, 2009

Supervised by: Mohammed Moukhyer


This cross sectional descriptive study was conducted in Omdurman locality. A total of 385 respondents were randomly selected from ten high secondary schools for girls. The objectives of the study were to assess socio-economic conditions of the respondents and to explore different forms of violence that girls face in schools, in their way to schools and in families. To find out the psychological consequences experienced by the girl-child after facing violence; from whom the girl seeks help. Also, to draw out several recommendations, in order to be implemented by educational policy makers. It was found that girls in this age face many forms of violence. The main causes are related to many inter-connected factors. Most is socialization and rigid treatment that girls face at home, as well as the study highlighted the negative physical and psychological impact of violence on adolescent girls, which affect and reduce their academic achievements and normal life.

It is clear from this research, that violence against adolescents girls is a reality and it occurs at all levels (home, schools and streets). Our societies play a great role in shaping the violence against girls. This violence affects the girl’s child psychology. Leads to depression, frustration and feeling isolated. The first person the girls seek help from is her friend. The communication with mother was least when mothers were illiterate. Finally, Our recommended to encourage and support men and boys to take an active part in the prevention and elimination of all forms of violence and especially gender based violence and increase awareness of men’s and boys responsibility in ending the cycle of violence; policy makers should play a great role to promote gender equality especially in the field of education. Future research should focus on effective implementation of education programs and informational messages on gender-based violence.


Homeless Girls in Omdurman Locality: Causes and Consequences


By: Nabawia Abdelrahman Harbi, 2009


The intension of this research is to review the current researches on street children submitted on the national level, studying the situations, conditions and visions of street girls in Omdurman Locality and try to fill the gap in data, evidences and recommended interventions.

The great number of street girls in Omdurman locality is the reason behind choosing it as field of the study and it represent the centre for families which internally displaces. Data collection took place between 15th July and 20th November 2008, in 3 main phases; mapping the general profile, interviewing the selected sample, and re-interviewing to fill gaps in data and evident.

A sample of 30 street girls was selected in three main areas of residence and three age groups. Data collected through semi structured interviews, in-depth interviews, and 8 case studies. SPSS used, for final qualitative data analysis of primary data collected between 15th July to 20 November 2008. For more details I highlighted on two case studies. Data will be analyzed using a modification of two frameworks: women empowerment, and capabilities and vulnerabilities framework. Only two levels of women’s empowerment framework will be used in this study; access and conscientization, as they are the most relevant level to street girls. To essence of this study is to answer its questions and deal with its assumptions and recommendations from the two points of view, us as researchers and street girls aimed at promoting, protecting and fulfilling their rights.

One of the main findings of the study is that, family breakdown, war, natural disasters, and child neglect and abuse are the most immediate factors leading to the girls on the street and makes them vulnerable to all forms of gender based violence and its tragedy consequences. Also, those girls have no access to any kind of education, reproductive health services, which lead to high vulnerability to STDs, AIDs and unwanted, unsafe, unplanned pregnancies. Positively, they have the power to choose and decide (to some extend) upon their life’s item, and they succeed in achieving unity and solidarity.


The domestic violence among displaced women In North Darfur (Abushook Camp)


By: Jawahir Musa Suliman, 2009


The objectives of this study are to analyze the impact of violence through:
* Examine the types of domestic violence experience by IDPs women in Camp
* Studying  impact of violence on women
* Throw lights the responses of women to domestic violence against them.
* Identify strategies that women apply to protect themselves against domestic violence.

The primary data were collected using semi-structured interview with women who Are visitors of the Justice and Confidence center (JCC) in Abushook IDPs Camp in Elfasher area. The findings showed that all women experienced different types of violence including:
* Domination of husband over women resources and proprieties.
* Absence of husband for months and lack of financial support for the family.
* Husband marriage for the second time without telling the first wife and she hear from other sources.
* Husband beating wives specifically when they ask for money.
* Husband threatens wives by divorce and take children using weapons while threaten them.
* Husband forced wives to make and sell alcohol.
* Husband tied the wife with ropes.
* Sex by force.

The factors contributing to violence are related to the tents environment in the Camp. The husband is lacking of employment and income and this need to assert his power and control. The respondents mostly are very submissive and try to improve environment and avoid immediate factors that lead to violence while some go to Justice and confidence center for advice. Some have sought divorce. All respondents mention negative impact on children. It is evident that domestic violence is an issue in the conflict situation that impact negatively on women and children.


Gender Sensitive Budget Initiative in Sudan: Prospects and Constrains


By: Farida Hassan Elbana Koko, 2009

Supervised by: Samia Elnagar


The objectives of the study were reviewing the process of formulation of Sudan current national budget to assess the opportunities for gender sensitive budget, presented mandates and functions for Women Administration to consider possibilities for role of Women Department in gender responsive budget and to be determine the perceptions of men and women in profession related to budget process about the prospects, for adopting gender sensitive budget initiative in Sudan. The study was conducted in Khartoum state with professionals related to budget process in the governments’ bodies; semi-structured interview was used to collect the primary data. The secondary data was collected from books, references, reports and formal documents which provide the conceptual framework that has been used in analyzing and discussing primary data.

Major findings were as follows: the formulation and references for the national budget process, the perceptions of men and women in professions related to budget process about the prospects and the existing women machineries’ mandates, if they were visualized adequately, are very supportive to gender equality and opportunities for gender responsive budget  in Sudan if political will and commitment exist, in addition to the constraints about the theoretical gender concept and how to transform and apply it, plus advocacy, raising awareness, programs and coordination.

The study provide some recommendations, which are sensitization and raising awareness and advocacy programs, providing statistical data on the gender aspects and recommendations for the future researches.


The Perception of Southern Sudanese Women about Self-determination As Stipulated by the Comprehensive Peace Agreement (CPA)


By: Grace Severio Paul, 2009


Southern Sudan is characterized by years of war and underdevelopment that have produced a crisis of enormous proportion across the   region.  The  civil war has  affected  men  and  women in Sudan differently,  both  and  women participated  in  the  war as well as  in  the efforts to manage  and  solve  conflict  but  in a different way and to a different  degree. The research explores how southern Sudanese women perceived self-determination.

The problem is that despite the active role women played at various levels in bringing peace, their role has been ignored during negotiations. Women’s role in this process is important and crucial because the   role they played as combatants. Supporters of fighting forces and    peace makers’ qualify them to set at negotiating table to assume an active role in implementation.

The study looked at the knowledge, views and attitudes women towards this issue and it reviewed the extent of organizational activities Women pertaining peace and peace building. The study was conducted in Juba town, the headquarters of the government of South Sudan. Data were collected during  September and  November  2008 from thirty women respondents, namely women  from  the greater  regions  of Southern Sudan and also these women represented  different sectors that Are   women  politician, women  from  public  sector and  women  from grassroots   and   non-governmental  organizations. The research used qualitative  methods in the process of work.

At the end of the research it is apparent women perceived self- determination as the right of the people to govern themselves. From the results of the study, it has been found that the majority of respondents Favor secession but still others believed that unity is important as women they are peace-makers.

At the end of the study also it   appeared   that affirmative action Policies are not enough to transform attitudes, practices and perceptions. Evidence suggest that despite women often being more visible in  non- traditional areas such as local political institution during conflicts, they tend to return to their less public roles after conflict, so women identify Empowerment Approach as a strategy for motivating women to work towards the issue of self-determination.

More research is needed to verify the role of women in peace and peace building. The government role is to reduce institutional inequality in law and practice.


Knowledge, Attitudes and Practicies of University Students in Khartoum State toward HIV/AIDS


By: Fatima Abdelrahaman Osman, 2009

Supervised by: Mohammed Moukhyer


Since the first report case in 1986, HIV/AIDS, prevalence reached 2.6% of the total population in the country by the year 2004. The estimated number of people living with HIV/AIDS ranged between, 440,000 to 550,000 individuals (UNAIDS). The most affected areas in the country include Southern States, and Khartoum and Kordofan states. (SNAP, 2004). Reported rates among some group of youth show rate of (1.1%) among university students and 1.3% among street children (UNAIDS, 2004). This study aimed to assess the knowledge, attitudes and practices among university students in Khartoum state that subject them to HIV/AIDS. The sample consists of 360 male and female students in age group (17-29). The students were chosen according to proportional representation in three universities, primary data was collected through anonymous self administrated questionnaire. The results revealed that most of respondents in study have considerable knowledge about HIV/AIDS and its modes of transmission (60.6%) and its classification (76.7%). Concerning the body fluids to HIV found (4.1% versus 5.3%) of students were mention semen which reflect low knowledge. Different sources of information contributed to the knowledge of respondents in regard to HIV/AIDS, TV was the main tool of visual and audible sources for distribution knowledge; score (12%) and the Radio (10%). The majority of respondents have negative attitudes towards people living with HIV/AIDS (stigma); 48.3% of both gender refused to take care of HIV/AIDS positive relative and 83.6% of both gender refused to buy food from HIV/AIDS positive person.

The study revealed that both sexes have negative attitudes towards using condom, the different causes behind refusing to use condom, include religious considerations, condom unsafe, condom encourage bad behavior (68.4%). Testing for HIV/AIDS, mostly ignored by the majority of both sexes, (88.6%) did not conduct any type of test for HIV/AIDS. It was recommended, to raise the awareness of students through intensifying HIV/AIDS programs, in regard to negative attitudes towards using condom and conducting of VCT. Integration of sexual education in the curricula of school and universities should be a top priority, with particular consideration to our culture and religious consideration.


Gender Sensitivity in Health Education Messages in Sudan


By: Asma Shamseldin Hassan Saeed, 2009

Supervised by: Setna Ahmed Alseed


The study has been under taken in Sudan in the federal Ministry of Health in Immunization department. The aim of the study is to review and analyze the Health education posters messages of the Epanded Program on Immunization (EPI) from gender perspective. In order to examine the gender sensitivity of these messages in term of words and images. The study has come out with results, findings and recommendations to help designing gender sensitive posters.

The research objectives:
1. To examine the vaccination posers clarity and representation to the targeted categories of the Sudanese community.
2. To examine the gender sensitivity of the vaccination poster’s images and messages and to review and analyze them from gender perspective.
3. To develop recommendations that can help for applying gender sensitive approach in the health education messages in vaccination posters.

The method used in the study is a qualitative method. It relayed mainly on developing gender analysis frame work, in order to analyze the sample of the research study. The research adopted the purposive method to choose the samples “13 posters” according to the objective of the study. The conceptual framework has drown out from the literature review of the research study. Then the samples been analyzed and the researcher hve come out with some findings and recommendations.


‘Sudanese. That’s it’. Explorations into the Dynamics of Ethnic Identity: A case study among women students from West Darfur in Khartoum


By: Anna Mussener, 2009

Supervised by: Awatif Ata Elmannan Elageed


The qualitative case study researches the shifting meanings and significations of ethnicity in contemporary Sudan. Its arguments are grounded on participant observation among women from Darfur, who study in Khrtoum and live together in a hostel, as well as interviews with several of these women. Constructivist approaches to ethnicity are taken as a starting point for this exploration. Based on the statements of the respondents, the study found that the concepts of tribe, race and nation come to play significant roles in the negotiation of ethnic identities. Despite the justified critique of tribe and race, they are used in this research as they remain significant identitarian concepts for the respondents. The mode of ethnic identity that the women emphasize above all is their national identity, namely being Sudanese. Coming from an economically, politically and culturally marginalized region, they thereby assert not only their belonging to the nation, but claim full citizenship and ensuing rights. The emphasis of national identity distinguishes many of the women from their parents, who would rather identity with their tribe than a distant and abstract nation.

For the respondents, here are two aspects to tribe. On the one hand, on the level of self-aware identitarian practice, it is regarded as an overcome un-modern residue, its significance lying mainly in folkloric, cultural practices. They are skeptical about identifying or being identified with one’s tribe, especially where it takes the form of tribalist politics. In this sense, they distance themselves from tribal modes of identification. On the other hand, tribe is ubiquitously present among the women as it is used to label a variety of economic and social structures. Albeit structures like extended family or social networks do not coincide with or cross tribal boundaries, they are often framed as tribal.

In terms of race, a strengthening of racial divisions between Arabs and non-Arabs is reported and attributed to the recent Darfur conflict. This manifests itself in a new significance of an Arab-zuruq binary. Both concepts are experiencing changes in usage and significance of an. Zuruq, which has always had a depreciative connotation, has only recently started to be used as a widespread term of verbal discrimination. In turn, it seems that there are tendencies by those marked as Zuruq to fill it with new meanings that allow the term to be used as merely a term of ethnic distinction, but is now charged with new, depreciative meanings. Interestingly, what was closely connected to the women’s conceptualizations of ethnic identity was their experience of (higher) education. Education was conceptualized as the factor that raised their awareness about national identity and induced term to promote this identity rather than others. But education also takes on an idetitarian from in itself. Being part of the ‘educated generation’, an identity that crosses regional, tribal, sectarian and racial boundaries, is closely connected to their experience of national identity.

Finally, it can be concluded from the findings of this research, that while experiences of tribe and race continue to shape the social reality of the respondents, they try to break this pattern by emphasizing and constructing alternatives modes of identification.


Assessment for Sudanese Women Empowerment for Peace (SUWEP)


By: Entisar Mohamed El-Haj Fadlalla, 2009


The study was conducted to assess the role of Sudanese women empowerment for peace (SuWEP) in peace building and the peace process in Sudan and the challenges faced by them. The method used for this study was qualitative method and crucial analysis applying purposive non-probability sampling techniques. The data was collected using both primary and secondary sources. The primary data was collected from interviews with Sudanese Women Empowerment for Peace members, and the secondary data were from books, reports and the internet, the sample was made of 15 women from different groups which formed SuWEP northern and southern sector groups. These were women from: women empowerment for peace network (WEPD), Nuba women for peace (NWP), Southern women for peace, National Democratic Alliance (NDA), National Committee and the Southern Sector. The groups from the southern sector included; Sudan people’s liberation movement (SPLM), Sudanese people’s liberation movement United SPLM-U, Sudanese people’s Democratic (SPDF) front (SPDF), and Non-partisan group (NPG). The main objectives at this study are: to assess the SuWEP success of failure in women empowerment for peace. It also tried to identify the constraints and challenges faced by SuWEP. Furthermore, the study tried to answer the questions, does the SuWEP play a future role in achieving Sudanese women solidarity.

The main findings of the study are: SuWEP has played an important role in peace building and advocacy, visibility through Maastricht joint meeting and comprehensive peace agreement (CPA). SuWEP contribute to capacity building for its members by offering several opportunities for training inside and outside Sudan; as well as by networking, lobbying, research and programs for grassroots peace education and development. It also gathered Sudanese Women regardless of socio-cultural, racial, economic and religious differences. SuWEP can play a future role in Sudanese women solidarity and unity of goal. Yet SuWEP groups met with several challenges such as funds, unity and registration. Thus the study concluded that SuWEP could be considered a Sudanese women movement, and played effective role in the peace building.

The main recommendations of this study are as follow:
1. SuWEP should be registered in the Humanitarian Aid Commission (here after ed as HAC) and to establish branches in various states of Sudan.
2. It should find out various ways of permanent funding and to have fixed offices where the staff is chosen naturally.
3. It should play constructive role in mobilization (IDPs) and prepare women to return to their original places.


الأداء البرلماني للمرأة بولاية جنوب دارفور


الباحث: سعدى محمد يعقوب زريبة, 2008

المشرف:بلقيس بدري



هدفت الدراسة الى القاء الضوء على كيفية تمثيل المرأة ونوعية مشاركتها داخل البرلمان، بولاية جنوب دارفور خلال فترة الدراسة بالاضافة الى تقويم الاداء البرلماني ومن ثم الوصول الى توصيات تساعد في ازالة المعوقات وتفعيل وتعزيز دور النائبات في ممارسة عملن البرلماني مع تناول اهم المعوقات التي تواجهه اداء البرلمانيات واستراتيجيات تخطيها.

اعتمدت الباحثة على المنهجين الكمي والنوعي في عرض الحقائق والبيانات وعلى الإسلوب الوصفي التحليلي في شرحها وتفسيرها. وتم جمع المعلومات والبيانات من المصادر الثانوية المتمثلة في (الوثائق والكتب والبحوث السابقة بالإضافة الى اوراق ورش العمل) ومن المصادر الاولية باستخدام ادوات جمع البيانات المتمثلة في (المقابلات الشخصية والمهاتفات والاستبيانات). كما استخدمت الطريقة (القصدية) في اختيار العينة . التي تم تقسيمها الى قسمين الاول عبارة عن عينة من 250 مفردة من المجتمع الدراسة، ممن لهم علاقة واهتمامات بالنشاط النسوي من القيادات التنفذية والسياسية، منظمات المجتمع المدني، الحركات المسلحة والمعلمات من الجنسين رجالا ونساء مع التركيز عالنساء بالصورة أكبر. وينتمون جمعيهم الى ولاية جنوب دارفور. وزعت عليهم 250 إستبيان بغرض تقويم وقياس مدى الرضاء عن الاداء البرلماني للبرلمانيات من ولاية جنوب دارفور، وقد كان عدد الاستبيانات الراجعة 236 والمفقودة 14 إستبيان. القسم الثاني عبارة عن 14 سيدة من البرلمانيات من ولاية جنوب دارفور. 10 على المستوى الولائي و4 على المستوى القومي تم اختيارهم كعينة قصدية بهدف استقراء ووصف تجربتهن البرلمانية وقد كانت الاستبيانات الراجعة منهن 10 إستبيانات بينما المفقودة 4 إستبيانات.

وقد جاءت أهم نتائج الدراسة على النحو التالي:

اولا: فيما يتعلق بمحور الرؤية نحو ضرورة وجود النساء في البرلمان ووجود سياسات تقود الى تحقيق العدالة بين الجنسين:

- إن المؤسسات الالتشريعية بالدولة لم تضع طوال الفترة الماضية من حكم التشريعات التي تساعد المرأة وتعزز وجودها في البرلمان بصورة نوعية كافية. كما أن التمثيل الحالي للمرأة بالبرلمان غير كافي عدديا.

- إن لنساء كثير من المشكلات التي تختلف من مشكلات الذكور والإحتياجات الخاصة التي تستدعى وجودهن في البرلمان بأعداد كافية. غير أن هذا الوجود يواجهه كثير من المعوقات والعقبات.

- إن إدراج مفاهيم العدالة والمساواة النوعية، ضروري كمحور أساسي للإصلاح السياسي في مرحلة التحول الديمقراطي.

ثانيا: محور الاداء البرلماني للمرأة بالولاية والعوامل التي تؤثر عليه: تشيرالنتائج الى أن الاداء البرلماني للمرأة يتأثر بعدة عوامل اهمها طبيعة النشأة والتأهيل بالنسبة لشخصية البرلمانية ثم طبيعة النظام السياسي لحكم الدولة وطريقة إختيار الممثلات ومدى تعبير هذة الطرق عن رغبة وطموحات المرأة بالولاية.

ثالثا: محور: رؤية المبحوثين والمبحوثات لأداء المرأة البرلماني بالولاية:

- يعزي أغلبية العينة ضعف اداء البرلمانيات الى قلة الخبرة والتجربة بالاضافة الى المفاهيم الاجتماعية غير المساندة للمرأة، وكيفية إختيارها للمشاركة.

كما توصلت الدراسة الى تميز البرلمنيات باداء الادوار الرقابية اكثر مما هي ادوار تشرعية. كما ظهرت لهن مشاركة واضحة في عضوية اللجان غير ان ادوارهن فيها لا تتجاوز العضوية الا قليلا. اما اهم القضايا التي حظيت باهتمامهن فقد كانت قضايا الامومة والطفولة والسلام والاستقرار بالاضافة الى تشريعات وقضايا الصحة والتعليم، غير انه وحسب ما توصلت اليه الدراسة من تحليل استبيانات التقويم فان الراي العام من عينة الدراسة يرى ان اداء البرلمانيات ببرلمان الولاية واهتمامهن بهذة القضايا غير كافي لاحداث التغير المطلوب لصالح المرأة وإن أمثل الطرق لتمثيل هي الإنتخاب الحر المباشر.

وفي ضوء ما توصلت اليه الدراسة من نتائج ، فقد كانت اهم التوصيات:

- الإهتمام بالتعليم وتطوير وتدريب المرأة بالولاية وإعطائها رصتها كاملة في الأحزاب.

- إعتماد نظم حكم ديمقراطية سليمة مع تطبيق نظام التمييز الإيجابي (الكوتا) والتمثيل النسبي للمرأة بم لايقل عن 25% بالبرلمان مع رفض مبدأ التعيين.

- تعديل القوانين والتشريعات بصورة تراعي النوع الإجتماعي مع توعية القواعد الجماهيرية لأهمية التمثيل النوعي وقضايا النوع.

- الإهتمام بالمصادقة والإلتزام بالإتفاقيات الدولية.

- خلق قنوات إتصال من والي البرلمانيات من ناحية النساء ومنظمات المرأة من ناحية.

- دعم الاداء الكيفي للبرلمانيات من خلال دعمهن بمكاتب إستشارية تساعدهن في العمل البرلماني مع ضرورة إعادة النظر في المناهج التعليمية والخطاب الديني والإعلامي والثقافي الخاص بنظرة المجتمع إتجاه المرأة وأدوارها.


المرأة و الفقر بمدينة نيالا


الباحث:حنان سليمان آدم, 2008

المشرف:تاج الانبياء على الضوى



يهدف البحث إلى معرفة الفقر وعلاقته بالنوع الاجتماعي وتحديداُ لمعرفة تأنيث الفقر في مدينة نيالا جنوب دارفور وفقاُ لبعض مؤشرات كالتعليم والصحة والعمل والملكية ، استخدم البحث المنهج الاجتماعي ودراسة الحالة ، قد توصلت الدراسة إلى أن هنالك اختلاف في درجة ونوعية الفقر والذي يؤكد لنا تأنيث الفقر بمدينة نيالا مجتمع الدراسة وأن الرجال والنساء في نيالا فقراء ولكن النساء أشد فقراُ بدليل نوعى وكمي وكذلك توصلت الدراسة على أن لهذا الفقر النوعي أسباب وتداعيات وان هنالك محاولات من قبل الحكومة للحد من تانيث الفقر بنيالا لكنها ضعيفة ولم تمس أعماق وجزور المشكلة ، يوصي بالتخبط والوعى بالنوع من أجل تكمين النساء اقتصادياُ واجتماعياُ وسياسياُ وبالتالى الحد من فقرهن .


الواصفات:الفقر ، المرأة ، التنمية ، السودان ، مدينة نيالا


The Role of Credit on Gender Roles and Women Empowerment in the Agriculture Production: Case Study: South Kordofan Rural Development Program


By: Nadia A. Hamdoun, 2008

Supervised by: Widad Ali A. Rahman


This study was carried out in South kordofan area. It aimed at the evaluation of the role of credit on gender roles and women empowerment in the agricultural production. The study utilized descriptive and analytical methods. Secondary data was obtained from sources such as books, articles, researches and previous studies. The primary data was collected by questionnaire and focus group discussions. The quantitative data was analyzed by computer using SPSS, while the data which was collected by focus group discussion was analyzed using qualitative analysis techniques. The study utilized a conceptual framework which was drawn from the literature relevant to phenomenon under study. The findings of the study showed that credit offered by SKRDP has affected the gender roles positively and generally women became empowered. Many factors such as marketing, competition, unsuitable time for providing credit, limitation of credit, natural calamities and lack of agricultural inputs constrained people in the agricultural sector to benefit from credit.

The study considered some recommendations in order to promote the enhancing factors and to challenge the constraints, the most important are:
- To increase the amount of credit to the size that can make people benefit more from it.
- To improve the infrastructure such as rural roads in order to facilitate the rural community in marketing outside the local markets.
- More resources should be allocated for women like land tenure to fill the gender gap in control over resources.


The Role of Azza Women Association in Empowering Displaced Women


By: Nafisa Hamad Daffalla Elzielie, 2008

Supervised by: Asia Makawi


This study aim to assess the role af Azza Women Association project entitled “Women Poverty Alleviation and Capacity Building Project, WPACB”, which was formulated to assist  in empowerment of displaced women CBOS, improve level of material welfare, accessed to training, credit, raising women awareness towards the difference between gender and sex roles, increase equal participation in decision making process, developing displaced women with capacity building and provide them with platform to come together. The project targeted displaced women in Eldilling area- in five displaced camps, Elwadie, Eltomat, Heliajdida, Kajeng and Alsafa.
The study was based on the women empowerment framework (Longwe, 1992), which introduced five levels of to equality to assess women levels of empowerment: welfare, access, conscientisation, participation and control. The study used different techniques to obtain the primary and secondary data. The secondary data were collected from official project documents, books, reports and previous literature. The primary data was collected using questionnaire and semi-structured interview. Data collected through the questionnaire were analyzed using Statistical Packages for Social Sciences (SPSS). Results revealed that the WPACB project give the displaced women CBOs the chance to design the project through need assessment and increased women involvement and participation in the community institution such as networks, public committees, local folk bands, mothers and fathers councils in addition to their participation in the CBOs. AWA WPACB focused on the objective to increase women participation in decision making process, this could be seen in the achieving of the objective of women access to training, health services, CBOs meeting, however, women access to credit and market was not achieved properly.

AWA WPACB achieved the objective of empower displaced women by setting up women’s groups and CBOs provided these groups with platform to express their needs and issues. In addition, AWA achieved the objective of awareness rising through training of capacity in term of material welfare, AWA provide kindergartens, literacy classes, health services, in term of women control over decision making and factors of production. AWA assisted women in the CBOs to have their own offices and income generating projects. AWA WPACB reached the objective of empowering displaced women CBOs as it could be seen in women empowerment framework, nevertheless, this is not encompasses all the levels, just manifested in access to awareness training, services, participation in public work and access to training but at control level need more intervention.


Women’s Awareness to their Constitutional Rights in Juba


By: Eveline L. J. Barnaba, 2008


This research seeks to investigate the extent of women’s awareness to their constitutional rights in Juba, because Sudan is entering to new change in the constitution and law reform. It is necessary for women to be aware of their constitutional rights, so as to practice and gain their full rights. The Southern Sudan interim constitution offer a quota of 25% share of representation in all institutions of the government to women. But the women’s position still is remote from achieving all that the constitution stipulates. High level of literacy and mounting poverty among them coupled up by insecurity prevent them from exercising their full constitutional rights. This research is a descriptive case study based on quantitative method using questionnaire and qualitative methods using techniques such as interview, group discussion as well as observation. This study is undertaken among sample selected using purposive and random sampling in Juba University for a total of 60 students. Then another category is selected purposively for two group discussion with women’s from Juba University staff and NGOs. Also five parliamentarians women’s from (GOSS) are interviewed.

The findings supported the research assumption of women’s awareness to their rights in the constitution is low due to their disengagement in the political sphere, and also due to some ideologies that push women back to be concentrated within their reproductive role. Findings indicated that cultural norms, illiteracy, male domination and women disinterest in policy making due to reproductive role resulted in a low awareness especially among university students and staff. However, awareness is high among women in top executive positions. The findings also indicated that increase in awareness raising activities lead to more awareness of constitution rights.


Southern Sudanese Children between Socialization in Kenya and Reintegration in Sudan


By: Marilyn R. A. Ossome, 2008

Supervised by: Abdel Ghaffar Ahmed


This thesis addresses the ways in which the Sudan conflict has affected children, focusing on how social, political and economic institutions responded to the needs of children affected by the war. The first section of the theses introduces the main themes under which children and conflict have been traditionally studied, examining children’s involvement in military activity and recent changes in warfare that have magnified the extent and intensity of children’s participation and response to combat. It adopts a gender perspective in the analysis of these impacts, critically examining the form and content of differential impacts of armed conflict on children on the basis of gender. The thesis incorporates findings from filed research done in Kakuma refugee camp and in Juba and Malakal in Southern Sudan, gathering data from five main groups of respondents; national nongovernmental organizations, international nongovernmental organizations, government bodies, religious organizations and individuals (parents/ guardians, community leaders and aid agency workers). Arguing from a perspective of cultural relativism, the thesis provides a detailed account of child protection issues in kakuma refugee camp and children. The ongoing process of repatriation is also a key theme, with its imperatives gleaned from comparisons between the social and economic conditions of children in Southern Sudan and in Kakuma camp. It is also theorizes the notions of ‘child soldiers’ and the ‘lost boys’, problematizing these labels as antithetic to child protection. The final section is a discussion of finding from the research, again providing a gender- disaggregated analysis of the ways in which Southern Sudanese children have been affected by refugee life due to conflict. It concludes that there is a need to develop ‘pull’ factors for return to southern Sudan concomitant with those available to children at Kakuma camp. It also discounts gender as being a major determinant of children’s access to education, but concludes that armed conflict exacerbates already fragile gender relations in refugee camps. A lack of prioritization of the issues of children by government is also found to be likely to impede the effective reintegration of children back into post-conflict Sudan, much more so than any discrimination based on gender or other social categories.


The Situation of Basic Education in Nomadic Societies from Gender Perspective: A Case Study of Nomads in Kapkabia Locality


By: Fathia Mohammed Osman, 2008

Supervised by: Amna Mohamed Badri


This study was conducted in Kapkabia Locality, a small part of North Darfur State in Western Sudan. The aim of the study to investigate the reasons behind the unsatisfactory situation of basic education in nomadic societies from gender perspective and to identify the constrains which affect nomadic children’s education especially girls, so this may lead to suggest some effective methods and means that improve children’s/girl’s access to basic education. The methodology of this research used to describe and explain the formulation of the study. Tow sources were used to collect the data. Primary data was collected from the field study by using questionnaire to provide quantitative data and interviews for collecting qualitative data from the heads of the households, teachers and out-of school girls. The secondary data was collected from General Ministry of Education, Statistic and Planning Department and Nomadic Education Department in North Darfur State, other information were collected from books, magazines, reports- mainly from UNICEF- and previous researches which consulted for the literature review and used for constructing the background information and conceptual framework.

The findings of the study show that the educational performance is generally poor with respect to enrollment and retention. Both boys and girls of school age are disadvantaged, but for girls, the situation is very gloomy, the main reasons behind this are the co-education system, early marriage and unequal division of domestic activities. So these reasons lessened the opportunities for nomadic children to complete basic education. However, all the efforts for achieving MDGs together with EFA goals would be faced by many challenges. Finally, this study introduces some suggestions, which may help to improve the access to basic education for nomadic children and accelerate girl’s education so as to achieve EFA goals.


Sudanese Women Owned Large Scale Enterprises: Opportunities and Perspectives


By: Amani Abdel Mageed Ali Alsarraj, 2008

Supervised by: Widad Ali Abdel Rahman


The aim of this study was to examine the reasons behind women’s involvement in business and the factors that influence them, and to what extent they succeed to achieve their goals, despite the challenges they face. It is also needs to highlight the role of businesswomen in their society. It is a descriptive study utilizing primary and secondary data. Secondary data was obtained from different sources such as book, journals, and previous studies, scientific studies presented in workshops or conferences. It provides definitions, concepts and theories in addition to some statistical information relevant to the topic. Primary data was obtained using a qualitative approach, by conducting semi-structured interviews. The research area is Khartoum state, out of the population of businesswomen in the state a sample has been chosen as a convenient sample. The data analysis has done by forming codes and categories relevant to the research objectives and questions. The discussion of the factors that influence women’s involvement in business and influence their business sustainability is drown from the literature review which constitute the conceptual framework.

The findings reveals that the area of concentration of businesswomen is the service sector, and the most cited reason for them to join business is strive for achievement, and independence. It also reveals that, the biggest challenge to women’s business is the finance and the government taxes and duties. They adopt many strategies to overcome the challenges they face, most o them succeed to achieve their goals. The conclusion highlights the issues raised by the study, and suggests some recommendations.


تسرب الاولاد والبنات من الدراسة في وحدة دار السلام محلية أمبدة – ولاية الخرطوم


الباحث : زهراء حسن منصور, 2007

المشرف: سامية الهادي النقر



تهدف الدراسة إلى أسباب تسرب البنات والاولاد من الدراسة في وحدة دار السلام ، ومعرفة النشاطات التى يقوم المتسرب بعد تركهم الدراسة .

استخدمت الدراسة أداة المقابلة غير المنتظمة لجمع المعلومات من المتسربين البنات والاولاد من عمر (9-17) سنة في وحدة دار السلام – محلية أمبدة – محافظة أمدرمان – ولاية الخرطوم .

أوضحت نتائج الدراسة على أن هنالك  اختلافات مرتبطة بالنوع في أسباب التسرب بمرحلة الاساس ، ومن النتائج أن المتسربين الاولاد يتركون المدرسة لأسباب اقتصادية لعدم مقدة الأسر على دفع الرسوم والمصاريف الدراسية ، وتكاليف المواصلات ، الفطور ، الزي المدرسي ، الكتب والكراسات .

ومن العوامل المساعدة للتسرب عدم ملائمة نوعية التعليم مع متطلبات سوق العمل لإهمال التعليم التقني والفني ، وعند اتخاذ قرار التوقف من الدراسة يعطي الأولاد الاولوية لمتابعة تعليمهم .

أما النشاطات التى يقوم بها المتسربين ، فالمتسرب من البنات يقمن بالأعمال المنزلية لمساعدة الأسر في زيادة دخلها ، والاهتمام بأخواتهن أو أخوانهن ، بينما المتسربين من الأولاد يقومون بأعمال وأنشطة عديدة مدرة للدخل كبيع الماء ، ومسح الأحذية .

وأن المتسربين من الأولاد والبنات لديهم الرغبة الأكيدة في مواصلة التعليم ، بيد أن الغالبية ليست لديهم الرغبة في ذلك .

وتوصي الدراسة بعدم الفصل من المدرسة وبتكوين وحدات إدارية خاصة بالمتسربين في الاداريات التعليمية وإدخال التعليم الفنى بمرحلة الأساس للبنات والأولاد وعلى المنظمات الإنسانية التأكد عند تمليك الأسر لزيسادة دخلها بأن تلك الوسيلة لا تؤدي إلى تسرب البنات والأولاد من المدرسة .

كما توصي الدراسة أيضاً بدراسة دور مدارس اليافعين في حل مشكلة التسرب من الدراسة .


Perception of Southern Sudanese Women towards Modern Methods of Family Planning


الباحث: إليزابيث جوزيف شادر, 2007

المشرف: بلقيس بدري



تهدف الدراسة لتسليط الضوء على المشاكل الاقتصادية التى تواجه الازواج الذين يبحثون عن علاج لعدم الانجاب وقد أجريت في مركز الخرطوم للخصوبة وقد جمعت البيانات الاولية عن طريق الاستبيانات لعدد (100) من الأزواج الذين زارو المركز في الفترة من يونيو حتى ديسمبر 2006 والبيانات الثانوية جمعت من الكتب ، المراجع ، الدوريات ، المختصة والانترنت . وقد تم تحليل البيانات باستخدام الحزم التطبيقية للعلوم الإجتماعية .

وقد خلصت الدراسة لنتائج أهمها أن معظم المبحوثين أكدوا أن أوضاعهم المالية منعتهم من بدء العلاج  مبكراُ لعدم الانجاب ، وأن الزوجات كن أكثر اهتماماُ بموضوع الانجاب . وأن المرضي الذين يكون مستوى دخلهم منخفض يعجزون عن مواصلة علاجهم في معظم الأحوال

وأوصت الدراسة إلى أن يجب على ديوان الزكاة والمنظمات غير الحكومية تقديم علاجهم المادي للأزواج ذوي الدخل البسيط لكي يستطسعوا من مواصلة علاجهم . وربط ذلك باستخدام الوسائط الإعلامية المتعددة لرفع الوعى بين الناس بأهمية العلاج المبكر لعدم الإنجاب .


The attitudes of Islamic women activities toward women and gender studies


الباحث: أمانى عبد القادر عبد الله البخاري, 2007

المشرف: مى عز الدين



الهدف من الدراسة هو التحقق من معرفة وأراء الناشطات الإسلاميات في دراسات النوع والأسس التى تكونت من خلالها هذه الأراء ، وهل هى مع هذا النوع من الدراسات أو ضد ولمادا ؟.

والنشاطات الإسلاميات في هذه الدراسة تعنى الناشطات المنضويات إلى أحد الحزبين السياسيين ، الحزب الحاكم وهو حزب المؤتمر الوطني والحزب المعارض وهو حزب المؤتمر الشعبي .

استخدمت الدراسة المنهج الوصفي عن طريق :


جمع المعلومات الأِولية وتم ذلك عن طريق المقابلات والعينات المختارة للدراسة وهى عينة مستهدفة وتمثلها الناشطات الإسلاميات وعددهن (8) ناشطات وعينة ضابطة يمثلها عدداُ من النساء الناشطات . يشتركن جميعاُ في كونهن من الناشطات في مجال النوع وعددهن (7) ناشطات .


جمع المعلومات الثانوية وذلك عن طريق الكتب والأوراق العلمية ، سمنارات ومواقع الأنترنت .

توصلت الدراسة إلى أن :


هناك وجهتى نظر مختلفتان تجاه دراسة النوع من قبل الناشطات الإسلاميات ووجهة النظر الأولي يمثلها الجيل القديم من الرائدات الإسلاميات (3 ناشطات إسلاميات ).


وجهة النظر الثانية ليست ضد دراسات النوع ولكن تتبني عدداُ من هذه المجموعة إضافة منظور إسلامي لدرسات النوع.


هناك قضية واضحة في قضايا المرأة الاولي ترتكز على التفسير الديني وتمثلها الناشطات الإسلاميات ، والأخري ترتكز على الخطاب العالمي في قضايا المرأة وحقوق الإنسان تمثلها الناشطات الأخريات ذوي الاتجاهات المختلفة والناشطات في مجال النوع.

وقد أوصت الدراسة الأتي :


إشاعة مفاهيم وثقافة النوع ( الجندر ) وسط قطاعات المجتمع المختلفة.


السعي لمد جسور الحوار بين الناشطات الإسلاميات وغيرهن من الناشطات النسويات خاصة الناشطات في مجال النوع .


Financial Problems Facing Infertile Couples Seeking Assisted Pregnancy (Khartoum fertility center)


الباحث: أموك البينو أكول, 2007

المشرف: صديقة وشيي



هدفت هذه الدراسة إلى تسليط الضوء على المشاكل الاقتصادية التى تواجه الأزواج الذين يبحثون عن علاج لعدم الإنجاب .

وقد أجريت هذه الرسالة في مركز الخرطوم للخصوبة . وتم تجميع البيانات الأولية للدراسة عن طريق الاستبيانات  التى استهدفت (100) من الأزواج الذين زاروا المركز في الفترة من يونيو حتى ديسمبر 2006 ، كما جمعت البيانات الثانوية من الكتب ، المراجع ، الدوريات المختصة ، ومن بعض مواقع الانترنت .

تم تحليل البيانات الأولية باستخدام الحزم الإحصائية التطبيقية للعلوم الإجتماعية ، ومن ثم توصلت الدراسة للنتائج التالية :


معظم المبحوثين أكدوا أن أوضاعهم المالية من بدء العلاج مبكراُ ، بالرغم من معرفتهم بأهمية العلاج المبكر لعدم الإنجاب .


المرضي الذين يكون مستوى دخلهم منخفض يعجزون عن مواصلة علاجهم في معظم الأحوال .


غالبية المبحوثين أكدوا أنهم في سبيل إنجاب أطفال فأنهم على استعداد لبيع منازلهم ، عرباتهم وكل ما يملكون.

واوصت الدراسة بالأتي :


يجب على ديوان الزكاة والمنظمات غير الحكومية تقديم الدعم المادي للأزواج ذوي الدخل البسيط لكي يستطيعوا مواصلة علاجهم.


إستخدام الوسائط الإعلامية المتعددة لرفع الوعي بين الناس بأهمية العلاج المبكر لعدم الإنجاب.


وعى المرأة المتعلمة بحقوقها الدستورية – ولاية جنوب كردفان


الباحث: انصاف عباس موسي بلنجة, 2007

المشرف: بلقيس بدري



يهدف هذا البحث لقياس مدي وعى المرأة المتعلمة بحقوقها في الدستور والإتفاقيات الدولية الجهود التى بذلت لنيل هذه الحقوق . وتحديد العوامل المؤثرة على وعى المرأة أيضاُ تهدف الدراسة إلى معرفة اتجاهات المبحوثات حول حقوق النساء الموجودة في الدستور الحالي وماهي رؤاهن المستقبلية لدستور راعي النوع . ومن الضرورة أن تعي المرأة مكانتها في المجتمع بمعرفة  حقوقها مما يساعد ذلك على مشاركتها الفاعلة في الحياة العامة ، ولذا تمحورت أهداف البحث في هذا الإطار بالإضافة إلى تحديد العوامل السلبية والإيجابية المؤثرة في مجال التوعية الحقوقية وفي الأنشطة المقترحة والمنفذة ومن ثم تحدد الرؤي المستقبلية لحقوق المرأة في الدستور .

أجريت هذه الدراسة في ولاية جنوب كردفان وتم تجميع البيانات الأولية عن طريق الاستبيان لعدد (100 ) أمرأة من مدينتي كادقلي والدلنج بالأضافة إلى مجموعات النقاش . شملت عينة الدراسة النساء المتعلمات تعليم ثانوي فما فوق . طالبات بمنظمات المجتمع المدني والموظفات بالمناصب العليا . ومن خلال ذلك توصلت الدراسة لنتائج أهمها :


ضعف مستوى الوعى بين أغلبية افراد العينة.


أغلب العوامل المؤثرة على ضعف مستوى الوعي بين النساء هو التعلم ثم المشاركة في الأحزاب السياسية ومواقع اتخاذ القرار ، ثم العوامل التى تؤثر على الوعى والتوجيهات لدي النساء ترجع الى الخلفية الفكرية ونوعية العمل الذي تمارسة المرأة اذ نجد أن ارتفاع عدد البرلمانيات والناشطات في مجال حقوق الإنسان والقانونيات .

وأوصت الدراسة :


بإقامة حملات توعية للشعب على جميع المستويات قبل البدء في إعداد الدستور وصياغتة لضمان المشاركة الفاعلة للمجتمع وتضمن كل احتياجات وحقوق المواطنين .


نشر الدستور بعمل نسخ مجانية توزع على كل المناطق.


زيادة تمثيل عدد النساء في مفوضية الدستور بنسبة 30% على الأقل لضمان مشاركتهن لتضمن مزيد من الحقوق للنساء مستقبلاُ .


دور الإعلام والإعلاميات في تفعيل مرحلة السلام : قناة النيل الأزرق


الباحث: سلمى محمد سيد محجوب, 2007

المشرف: أمل عبد الرحمن حمزة



الدراسة تدور حول دور الإعلام والإعلاميات في تفعيل مرحلة السلام بقناة النيل الأزرق عبر البرامج المتنوعة التى يتم عرضها .

الوسائل التى أتبعت في جمع المعلومات كانت مقابلة شخصية مع القائمين بأمر القناة من مسؤلين قيادين ومنفذي رؤي برامجية من المعدين والمنتجين ومساعدي الإنتاج وكذلك الإعلاميات النساء بالإضافة إلى النظر في الشرائط الموجودة بمكتبة قناة النيل الأزرق وما أحتوته من مواد .

وبما أن تلفزيون قناة النيل الازرق كوسيلة مخاطبة جماهيرية تخاطب جمهور عريض في الداخل والخارج ذات تبعية خاصة واتجاة استثماري تسعى لانتاج البرامج المنوعة التى تستهدف جنب شريحة أكبر من المشاهدين ،وجدت أصلاُ لتشجيع الاستثمار العربي في السودان وكشفت الدراسة أن القناة لم تكن تسعي لتفعيل مرحلة السلام بالصورة  القوية والمباشرة ولم تكن المرأة الإعلامية ذات فاعلية في إتجاه التناول على ضعفه في تناوله لقضايا ومشاكل المرأة في مناطق النزاعات المسلحة . التى تتعرض للقتل والعنف والإغتصاب وعكس مدي التغير الذي حدث للأوضاع الإجتماعية والادوار الاقتصادية للمرأة وأظهرت النتائج وجود كثير من التحديات التى تواجه المرأة الإعلامية بصورة عامة ، والإعلامسة بقناة النيل الازرق خاصة مع عدم وجودها في مواقع اتخاذ القرار وانحصارها في الغالب في الجانب التنفيذي والوظائف الإدارية والإنتاجية المساعدة . برغم وجود مساحة مقدرة لتناول قضايا المرأة ولكن يظل التناول ضعيف كما كشفت الدراسة الأثر السالب لتقلب دورات الحكم على لسياسات الاتصالية بالإضافة إلى وجود قوانين وتشريعات معيقة لحرية الرأي وحرية وسائل الاتصال .

وخرجت الدراسة ببعض المقترحات الخاصةة بصورة تضمن برامج تفعيل مرحلة السلام بصورة واضحة ، ومنظمة لخارطة برامجية مع التركيز على قضايا المرأة في المناطق الطرفية ، وضرورة تحسين أداء الاعلاميات بالاحتكاك العلمي والتدريب والمشاركة الفاعلة وتغير النظرة السالبة لاداء الإعلامية بمزيد من التأهيل ورفع الكفاءة.


HIV/AIDS Stigma in Khartoum State


By: Aysha Siddig Mohammed Ahmed, 2007

Supervised by: Dr. Mohammed Mokhaier


The research deals with HIV stigma in Khartoum, the social impact of HIV/AIDS and the associated stigma on the patients and their families. It also evaluates the extent and impact of the AIDS stigma as a negative social phenomenon. It identifies factors contributing to its existence. Data for study were collected from literature, official reports, statistics, relevant previous studies and interviews.The results of the study indicate the presence of the AIDS stigma in the Sudanese society. However, it is not taken seriously by policy makers as a separate problem that requires programs for dealing with it. The available program has been impeded because of lack of coordination despite state involvement in supervision and program evaluation. Efforts to fight HIV/AIDS are deficient especially in awareness raising and information dissemination. There is a culture of silence that surrounds the disease and makes public debate about the issue impossible.

Keywords: HIV stigma, society, programs, coordination


Towards Anti Female Genital Mutilation Policy in Sudan


By: Yosra Mohammed El Moustafa Eltayeb, 2007

Supervised by: Mohamed Moukyer


The study aims to suggest a policy for FGM abolishment in Sudan to know the view of policy makers on the importance of FGM in the government agenda, and to identify main groups that influence the policies. The findings of the study show that there different factions who pressure the government towards anti FGM policy making including NGOs, UN agencies, media and international NGOs. However religious leaders are the main force to influence anti FGM negatively. Despite the efforts exerted, there is slight change in the attitude of people. The study recommends improvement in three main aspects: capacity-building of NGOs, raising awareness of people and working at the grass roots levels.

Keywords: FGM, policy, attitudes, abolishment


Election and Gender in Sudan


By: Tayseer Elnorani Mohammed, 2007

Supervised by: Muktar Elassum


The study investigates the reasons behind weak women participation in elections; it explores the different electoral systems that give the women the chance for effective and actual participation in elections. The study concluded that political parties are interested in women’s participation at all party level structures. Women’s absence from leadership positions is one of the constraints of effective participation in elections. Party candidates are chosen by party leaders which are male dominated as a result of the patriarchal culture. The spread of the concept that considers politics man’s affair and exclude women from being part of it. The study recommends developments of political educational programs to enable citizens to be aware of their rights and duties. State should adopt policies and laws to fill the gender gap in the political participation of women.

Keywords: participation, high position, gender gap


Educated Sudanese Women’s Knowledge about Women’s Rights in the Constitution in Khartoum State


By: Safia Musaad Mohamed, 2007

Supervised by: Balghis Badri


The study aims at being part of a future constitution drafting which takes activist’s vision into consideration. It also aims at measuring educated Sudanese knowledge, and attitudes towards women’s rights in the constitution and international conventions. The study manages to review knowledge on women’s contribution to the constitution making process in the past and currently, and mapping future vision for women’s constitutional rights. The research found that knowledge level varies among different categories of the community. A low level of awareness is one of the factors that influence women’s participation; therefore, women’s representation in the constitution making is an issue for further research.

Keywords: constitution, awareness, representation


العوامل المؤثرة على إستخدام خدمات الصحة الانجابية وسط النساء المتزوجات في سن الإنجاب (15-49 ) سنة بولاية النيل الأزرق


الباحث: جهاد على الشيخ, 2006

المشرف : مصطفي خضر نميري


الدراسة تناولت العوامل المؤثرة على خدمات الصحة الإنجابية وسط النساء المتزوجات بولاية النيل الأزرق . تهدف الدراسة لمعرفة العوامل الاقتصادية والاجتماعية والثقافية التى تؤثر على إستخدام  خدمات الصحة الانجابية  . بالإضافة إلى قياس أثر هذه العوامل وتحليلها لمعرفة مدي تاثيرها بعامل النوع الإجتماعي . وقد إستخدمت في هذه الدراسة المنهج الوصفي التحليلي . وقد تم جمع المعلومات من المصادر الثانوية ( تقارير – دوريات ) ، بالإضافة للمصادر الاولية في الاستبيان كأداة لجمع المعلومات والذي تم تحليله عن طريق استخدام برنامج الحزم الإحصائية للعلوم الإجتماعية (SPSS) ، وقد توصلت النتائج إلا أن عمل الزوجة من العوامل المؤثرة على إستخدام خدمات الصحة الإنجابية بالإضافة للدخل الكلى للأسرة . كذلك أن للعمر عند الزواج له أثر مابعد الولادة والإستخدام الحالى لخدمات تنظيم الاسرة.

ومن أهم التوصيات التى خرجت بها الدراسة مراعاة العوامل الاجتماعية والاقتصادية عند وضع الاسترتيجيات والسياسات ومدى تأثيرها على عوامل النوع الاجتماعي . وتمكين النساء اقتصادياُ وإجتماعياُ لان ذلك يعطيهن قدرة على إتخاذ القرار .


الأثر الاقتصادي لبرامج مراكز تدريب الشباب على المرأة بولاية سنار – محلية سنار


الباحث: لبنى محمد عبد العزيز, 2006

المشرف: إشراف أمنة الصادق بدري


الدراسة تهدف لتقييم نجاح برامج مراكز تدريب الشباب في مجال تنمية المرأة بالمجتمعات المحلية  . وذلك عن طريق قياس الأثر الاقتصادي لبرامج هذه المراكز على حياة النساء المستفيدات ( خريجات برامج المناشط النسوية ) إذ تهدف برامج مراكز تدريب الشباب لتنمية قدرات النساء المستفيدات بتملكتهن حرفة أو مهارة عبر التدريب ليعينهن في الحصول على عمل مدر للدخل يساعد في تحسين مستوى أسرهن المعيشي وزيادة دخلها بالاضافة للمواد النظرية عبر البرامج المصاحبة لكورسات التدريب في مجالات الصحة الانجابية ، إصحاح البيئة ... الخ . وقد تم اختيار الدراسات بمركز تدريب الشباب بمحلية سنار باعتبار أن هذا المركز من المراكز التى قدمت واسعة في هذا المجال .

استخدمت الدراسة وسائل مختلفة فقد جمعت البيانات بواسطة الاستبيان والمقابلة والبيانات الثانوية من المستندات الرسمية من وثائق وتقارير . واوضحت النتائج المحلية أن تلك البرامج لعبت دور كبير في رفع مستوى الوعى والإدراك بين النساء والمستفيدات .

وقد توصلت الدراسة إلى أن التدخل السياسي في العمل التنفيذي له ضلع في تدنى الخدمة المقدمة من مراكز تدريب الشباب واثبتت الدراسة الأثر السلبي الواضح لعدم متابعة وتقييم المسئولين لاوضاع المستفيدات بعد التخرج من حيث الحصول على عمل مدر للدخل ، ولابد من إدخال قضايا النوع الاجتماعي ضمن البرامج المصاحبة للكورسات .


The constraints and Needs of Women Farmers in Mechanized Rained Agriculture Production.


الباحث: لوشيا لورانس أجوك , 2006

المشرف: بلقيس بدري



اعدت هذه الدراسة في محلية الرنك بولاية شمال أعالى النيل تدرس حال النساء اللائي يمارسن الزراعة المطرية والمشاكل التى تعانى منها والتى تعوق تحقيق محصول مجزئ من الإنتاج الزراعي . الدراسة تهدف لتحديد الاحتياجات والمشاكل التى تقف في طريق تحقيق عائدات زراعية مجزئية وتأمين الحاجة الماسة للغذاء . أيضاُ وصف المعايير ومدخلات لاداء المرأة التى تعمل بالزراعة وتحديد مدى إنتاجها وكفايتها لتحقيق عائد مجزئي.

وقد تم إستخدام  الاستبيان لجمع المعلومات الأولية . وتم تحليل البيانات وتفسيرها بتوضيح العلائق بين المتغيرات وأظهرت النتائج بأن العوامل الرئيسية التى تؤثر في إنتاجية المرأة التى تعمل بالزراعة هى الأرض ، التمويل ، الالات الزراعية والبذور

وقد توصلت الدراسة إلى ىتوصيات بانشاء رابطة للمزارعات بهدف رفع مستوى الوعى . تعليم الكبار . تعليم الأسس الزراعية الحديثة .


مشاركة المرأة السودانية في الأحزاب السياسية : دراسة مقارتة بين حزب الامة القومي والحزب الشيوعي السوداني


الباحث: عائشة محمد محمود, 2006

المشرف :عطا حسن البطحانى



هذه الدراسة تناولت مشاركة المرأة السودانية في الاحزاب السياسية مع تسليط الضوء على دراسة حالة حزب الأمة القومي والحزب الشيوعي السودانى .

الدراسة هدفت لمعرفة اراء الأعضاء في مشاركة المرأة داخل الأحزاب السياسية والتى من خلالها تصل المرأة فيها إلى مناصب قيادية ومواقع صنع القرار داخل الأحزاب . استخدمت الباحثة المنهج التاريخي الوصفي التحليلي وأعتمدت على المقابلات مع قيادات وأعضاء من الحزبين ( حزب الأمة – الحزب الشيوعي السوداني ) كما اعتمدت على المصادر الأخري ( كتب – دوريات – أوراق عمل وبحوث ).

وتوصلت الدراسة إلى أن الهيمنة الذكورية أدت لعدم فاعلية مشاركة المرأة السياسية وضعف تمثيل المرأة في الهياكل العليا مما أضعف دورها في الحياة العامة وكلما ضعف تمثيل المرأة في الهياكل العليا قلت فرصتها في التأثير في السياسات العامة.


Impact of Darfur conflict on Women Traders


الباحث: ماجدة عبد الله إبراهيم, 2006

المشرف: بلقيس بدري



اجريت هذه الدراسة إلى تحليل أثر الصراع الحالي في دارفور على النساء المتاجرات من خلال فهم الأدوار والأنشطة بالإضافة لظروف العمل والفرص المتاحة لهن قبل وأثناء الصراعات علاوه على التعريف بمشاكلهن ومسبباتها والتوصل لحلول . وقد هدفت الدراسة بتحليل المشكلة على النساء المتاجرات من خلال التعرف على المناطق التى تعمل بها النساء ومعرفة ظروفهن وأحوالهن المعيشية أثناء وابان الصراع المسلح . واثر عمل المرأة على أسرتها .

وقد تمت عملية جمع المعلومات الأولية بواسطة المقابلات لبعض الحالالت والتركيز على مجموعات النقاش الموجهة وقد استهدفت المقابلات عشرة نساء وثلاثة مجموعات نقاش . أما بالنسبة للمعلومات الثانوية تم جمعها من الكتب والتقارير المنشورة باللإضافة للأنترنت ، وتوصلت النتائج إلى أن هنالك الكثير من النساء اللائي يعتمدن بصورة جزئية أو كلياُ على التجارة كمصدر رئيسي من مصادر الدخل وان الغالبية العظمي من النساء المنشغلات بالتجارة يعانين من ضعف التعليم والأمية وأن بعض منهن يشاركن في بعض التنظيمات السياسية وان النساء اللئي يعملن داخل مدينة الفاشر يعانين من الفقر ويؤدين أعمالاُ شاقة وليس لهن خيار أخر سوي تأدية هذه الأعمال ليلبين احتياجات أسرهن .

واوصت الدراسة بأهمية تطوير نظام لفهم أوضاع المرأة في دارفور وذلك من خلال جمع ونشر المعلومات عت تقدير الاحتياجات الفعلية والمناصرة مع السياسيين ومتخذي القرار لضمان تأمين اقتصاد واحتياجات المرأة .


أستراتيجيات تدريب القابلات والقرويات والمعوقات التى تواجههن دراسة حالة : قرية ولاية النيل الأبيض


الباحث: منال مكى سليمان عبد الله, 2006



اجريت هذه الدراسة في قي ولاية النيل الأبيض في منطقة قلى ، النعيم ، تندلتى ، وبدأ هذا البحث في الأول من يونيو إلى ديسمبر وتناولت نوعية وتدريب القابلات والقرويات والتعرف على مدي استفادتهن من التدريب . والمعوقات التى تواجههن في أداء دورهن بعد التدريب وإن كن يواصلن العمل بعد التدريب أم لا .

أستخدمت الدراسة المنهج الوصفي التحليلي في إطار هذه الدراسة والتحليل واعتمدت على المصادر الثانوية من كتب وبرامج وانترنت والتى تتركز في عمومها على تدريب القابلات القرويات على وجه الخصوص وذلك في العقبات التى تواجه القابلات وكيفية تخطي هذه العقبات .

وقد أوضحت النتائج أن العقبات التى تواجهها القابلات تتلخص في القصور من جانب الدولة التى تمثلها وزارة الصحة والتى تضع أليات المتابعة اللازمة لتحقيق أهداف استراتيجياتها وأيضاُ القصور من جانب المجتمع المحلى لعدم اعترافه بأهمية عمل القابلة القروية لاداء عملها.


الإعلام وإدماج النوع الإجتماعي في سياسته وبرامجة دراسة حالة (تلفزيون السودان)


الباحث: مها حسن فريجون, 2006

المشرف: بلقيس بدري



الدراسة تناولت حالة التلفزيون ( السودان ) عن دوره كجهاز إعلامي في إدماج النوع الاجتماعي للسياسات العامة للتوظيف والترقي والتدريب في التلفزيون من أجل الوصول على توعية الوضع الاجتماعي في تلك السياسات وقد تناولت الراسة برنامج ( ملتقى العائله ) الذي يعني بقضايا النوع الاجتماعي بالتلفزيون في الفترة من 30يوليو – 21 ديسمبر 2004 . ثم بحثت السياسات العامة للتوظيف والترقي والتدريب في تلفزيون السودان من أجل التعرف على وضع النوع الاجتماعي في تلك السياسات وقد وجدت الباحثة أن التلفزيون السودانى في إطار السياسات العامة للتوظيف والترقي والتدريب لا يقر التميز النوعي ولكن ليس ذا حساسية للنوع الاجتماعي وأن من أهم نتائج تحليلبرنامج ملتقي العائلة أنه لا يعني بقضايا النوع الاجتماعي بشكل مدروس وانما يجي كاجتهاد شخصي لمعدي ومقدمي البرنامج .

والتوصيات التى خرجت بها الباحثة تمثلت في وضع نموذج  لكيفية إعداد البرامج التى تهتم بقضايا النوع الاجتماعي . وتمكن المرأة واحداث المساواة بين النوعين في مناحي الحياة .


Socioeconomic factors Affecting Maternal Mortality in Khartoum State


الباحث: نوال محمد الفكي, 2006

المشرف: صديقة وشي



الدراسة هدفت للتعرف على العلاقة بين العوامل الاجتماعية والاقتصادية والأسباب المباشرة لوفيات الأمهات . واتبعت المنهج الوصفي التحليلي للمعلومات الاولية والثانوية وفيه اعتمدت الدراسة على استخدام الاستبيان الذي استهدف اثنين وسبعين من اسر المتوفيات ، وتمت المقابلة مع أسر المتوفيات وبحضور أثنين من الكوادر العاملة في الحقل الصحي . وإستخدام لتحليل البيانات برنامج التحليل الاحصائي SPSS والتى من خلاله توص2لت إلى أن هناك علاقة بين الانجاب والأنيميا ووفيات الأمهات وليس هناك علاقة قوية بين الفقر والجهل والمتابعة أثناء الحمل وعدم المساواة من العوامل الاقتصادية والإجتماعية المساهمة في وفيات الأمهات أن معظم النساء يعملن في القطاع غير الرسمي بسبب عدم التعليم والفقر وبأجور زهيدة.

وأوصت الدراسة بإدماج خفض وفيات الأمهات في سياسات واستراتيجيات وبرامج ومشروعات تمكين المرأة وذلك من خلال رفع مستوى الوعى بمخاطر الحمل والولادة واشراكها في المستويات المختلفة لاتخاذ القرار اامشاركة لتحديد حاجاتها في وضع السياسات والاستراتيجيات والبرامج المتعلقة بقضايا المرأة .


Marriage of Sudanese women and men to Non-Sudanese. Aspects and problems


الباحث: رباب اسحق أحمد, 2006

المشرف: سامية الهادي النقر



الدراسة رمت للتعرف على الاتجاهات والمشكلات التى ارتبطت بزواج السودانيون بغيرهم من الجنسيات الأخري . ومدي معرفة هؤلا الأزواج لهم في هذا الإطار وإستعانت الباحثة بالكتب والأوراق العلمية ، التقارير البحثية ، الدوريات لجميع ما سبق من دراسات في عمق الإطار النظري المطروح . وقد تمت به استخدام المقابلة لجمع المعلومات من تسع نساء . وست رجال خبروا الزواج برجال ونساء لهم صفة الأجنبية وذلك في شتي مناحي ولاية الخرطوم عن طريق شبكات هؤلاء الأزواج .

وقد تبلورت نتائج هذه الدراسة أن أوجه الزواج لغير السودانيون ظاهرة توضح المدي الذي أصبحت فيه النساء السودانيات يتزوجن برجال أوربيين وأن من النتائج أيضاُ محاولات غير السودانيون لاسقاط حاحز الثقافة . أما فيما يتعلق بالأسر فقد أظهرت النتائج الأدوار السلبية التى لعبتها الأسر السودانية مما حدا بتضافر الزوج أو الزوجة لبتر هذه الأدوار السلبية بالنسبة للنساء فقد احتاجت لوضع استراتيجية تضمن لهن الوصول لقناعة والديهم.

وقد اوصت الدراسة عن ضرورة وجود دراسة لمواقف أطفال هذا الزواج لمعرفة مدي تقبلهم أو رفضهم للثقافة السودانية وذلك لاعتبار التحديات التى واجهت هؤلاء الاطفال مع مراعاه الاعمار المختلفة . فضلاُ عن مدي تفهم الشاب أو الشابة السودانية لهذا الزواج . أيضاُ دعت الدراسة لضرورة بذل جهود من قبل المسئولين لترسيخ وعى هؤلاء المتزوجين من غير سودانيون بحقوقهم كحق شرعى لهم من قبل القوانين الدولية والمحلية الداعمة لهم .


سياسات الدولة وعلاقاتها بانتشار الفقر


الباحث: سهيل عيسي الفكى على, 2006



الدراسة تناولت علاقة السياسات الاقتصادية السودانية وإرتباطها بانتشار الفقر . وذلك من خلال برنامج التكييف الهيكلي في السودان الذي أدي لزيادة انتشار الفقر ، وسياسات الدولة الإقتصادية الذي ادي لزيادة الفجوة النوعية ، وأثر تطبيق السياسات في تأنيث الفقر وأجريت هذه الدراسة مابين يناير – سبتمبر 2005م . وتوصلت هذه الدراسة إلى أن السياسات الاقتصادية من الاستقلال وحتى الأن ضعيفة ومعرقلة للنمو الاقتصادي السليم وقد أدت لتجحيم فرص استخدام الموارد المحلية والمالية وتراجع فرص لااستثمار مما أدي الى هروب روؤس الأموال وهجرة العقول خاصة في عام 1990م. ولكن في عام 1994م ذاد انتشار الفقر بصورة مزهلة نتيجة لسياسات التكيف الهيكلي والغصلاح الاقتصادي وذلك باحالة كم هائل من العاملين في الدولة للمعاش مما دفع الكثيرين للهجرة وهذا إضافة إلى رفع الدعم عن قطاعه الخدمات ( الصحة والتعليم).

واخيراُ توصلت إلى أن كل السياسات لحكومة السودان كانت صيغة وذات اثار سلبية ( التكييف الهيكلي والإصلاح الإقتصادي ) وقد أدت لانتشار البطالة وزيادة عدد المرضي والفقراء خاصة لااطفال والنساء وهن أفقر الفقراء مما أدي إلى تأنيث لفقر وزيادة الفجوة النوعية .


مفهوم النساء السودانيات السليمات لحقوقهن الزوجية في الشريعة الإسلامية بالتطبيق على جامعة أمدرمان الإسلامية وجامعة  الاحفاد للبنات


الباحث: هدي بكري حسين الرفاعي, 2006

المشرف: عمر القراي



تهدف الدراسة لمعرفة مدي إدراك النساء السودانيات لحقوقهن الزوجية في الشريعة الإسلامية وقانون الأحوال الشخصية لعام 1991 . وتأثيرها على الممارسة الفعلية لحقوق الزوجية في الحياة الأسرية ، أعتمدت الدراسة على المعلومات الأولية من خلال الاستبيان . والمنهج التحليلي لعرض مشكلة الدراسة واختيار الفرضيات .

وأظهرت نتائج الدراسة إلى أن النساء المتعلمات بشكل عام أكثر وعياُ وممارسة لحقوقهن الزوجية من اللاتى لم يحظين بفرصة التعليم النظامي واظهرت ايضاُ أنه كلما زادت الخبرة المكتسبة للنساء بحقوقهن الزوجية عن طريق التقدم والحياة الزوجية ذاد الوعى بالحقوق الزوجية وممارستها من قبل النساء .

وخلصت الدراسة إلى أن المرأة ما لم تزيد من معرفتها بحقوقها الزوجية لاتستطيعان يكون لها أثر فاعل في المحافظة على الأسرة السليمة ومن ثم مجتمع سليم معافي .


Sudanese Women’s Conception on Islamic Constitution towards Marital Rights: A Case Study of Omdurman Islamic University and Ahfad University for Women


By: Huda Bakri Hussein Elrafaiy, 2006

Supervised by: Omer Elgaray



The study aims at testing the knowledge of Sudanese women about their marital rights according to Islamic Sharia law. It analyzes their attitudes toward these rights and what impact it has on their marital rights participation. The study realizes that educated women are more aware of their marital rights than the uneducated ones.

Keywords: marital rights, awareness, participation


Attitudes and Expectations of Sudanese Refugees in the Sherkole Camp in Western Ethiopia towards Repatriation


By: Amani Hashim Elsayed, 2006

Supervised by: Balghis Badri


The research aims to study the expectation of Sudanese refugees in Ethiopia towards repatriation from gender perspective through the different factors affecting repatriation in the macro, meso and micro level. It focuses on the context of living conditions before and after seeking refuge, the risks and the opportunities. It identifies motivation and obstacles affecting the decision to repatriate. The research assumes that the majority of men and women want to return to a secure peaceful environment. Men may have more opportunities in host countries, less risk and may manage to integrate more than women do. Research found that the majority of people in camps are women and few have access to work and educational opportunities. Another problem is the gender-based violence prevalence (such as rape harassment) and less integration to local communities.

Keywords: repatriation, risks, opportunities, violence


The Impact of the Darfur Conflict on Women Traders


By: Magda Abdalla Ibrahim, April 2006

Supervised by: Balghis Badri


The study looks into the impact of the current Darfur conflict on women traders. It aims to understand women’s roles, activities, work conditions, problems and opportunities during the conflict. The objective of the study is to identify women traders working zones, living conditions during the conflict, problems women’s encounter, and the impact of working women on their families during the conflict. Primary data is collected through interviews, and focus group discussions. The findings reflected that many employed women depend on trade as the main source of their income in addition to other trade activities they are involved in whether at home, on the street or at schools. The majority of women are either illiterate, or poorly educated. Most women work under armed conflict situation and face psychological and physical problems as a consequence of continuous stress, anxiety, abuse and harassment. Concerning legislative and policy issues most women traders have no legal organization to legalize their activities and to protect them from different forms of exploitation, abuse and offer them security. The research recommends more understanding of women’s situations in Darfur especially women traders. This implies supporting local efforts to collect and disseminate data on women’s needs, networks and advocate for political and financial support.


Keywords: trade, conflict, needs, security, network


الهجرة القسرية واثارها في تغيير ادوار النوع : دراسة حالة نساء حبال النوبة بمعسكر ود البشير


الباحث: أمانى سعيد عابدين نواى, 2005

المشرف: سامية الهادى النقر



تهدف الدراسة إلى التعرف على التغيرات التى طرأت على أدوار المرأة النازحة من مجموعات جبال النوبة إلى مدينة أمدرمان،أوضحت الدراسة أن النساء النازحات تختلف أوضاعهن الاجتماعية فيهن المطلقات والمنفصلات والارامل والمتزوجات وهذه الخاصية مهمة في إختلاف ادوارهن النوعية المختلفة فهن يعملن في مهن شملت بيع الشاي المأكولات الخمر والعمل في المنازل وهى أعمال ذات دخل محدود وتشير الدراسة إلى وجود تغيرات في علاقات القوة داخل الاسرة اذا توسعت فرص النساء في اتخاذ القرار في المجال الاقتصادي والاجتماعي ، توصي الدراسة بتكوين وحدات إدارية خاصة بالمرأة النازحة تهتم بقضايا ومعالجة مشاكلها وازالة الفجوة النوعية في كافة مجالات العمل العام وفي كافة مجالات الخدمات الاجتماعية .


الواصفات: الهجرة القسرية : النوع : نساء جبال النوبة : بمعسكر ود البشير : المرأة النازحة


The Perception of Internally Displaced Persons (IDPs) to Repatriation: case study Mayo Displaced Camp, Khartoum State


By: Sara Gabrial Showka Wani, 2005

Supervised by: Balghis Badri


The objectives of this study were to find out IDPs of both gender understanding and perception to repatriation, to identify the reasons or factors that motivate the IDOS to repatriate to their place of origin and to identify the reasons or factors that hider the IDPs to repatriate to their place of origion, the findings showed that the majority of the respondents were in the reproductive age 25-40 year and most of them were females with high percentage of Dinka tribe individuals, IDPs willing to repatriate to their places of origin.

Keywords: Civil War, Displacement, Gender


Socio-Economic Impact of Obstetric Fistula on Sudanese Women: case study women patients in Abbo Centre Khartoum


By: Hind Mahmoud Yousif Hussein, 2005

Supervised by: Nafisa Badri 


The study objectives aimed to identify and assess these impacts in addition to the precipitin factors, gender dimensions of the problems and its related complications, the study found all respondents were found to be living in low social economic status and from poor communities which suggests a relationship between poverty and fistula, the study recommended to give more consideration to fistula patients in form of support.

Keywords: Socio-Economic, Obstetric Fistula, Sudanese Women, Abbo Centre Khartoum


Women and Work: an Examination of How Women Manage their Triple Roles


By: Um Elhussien Yassin, 2005

Supervised by: Amel Hamza


The objectives of the study to understand women triple roles, to identify the services which provided by the institutions that helping women of the paid job to manage their triple work and to figure out the strategies that women undertaken to coordinate their roles. The main findings of the study showed that husbands of working women are helping in the domestic work and working women are contributing to participate in the household expenditures by their salary from their paid job.

Keywords: Women, Work, Family


التمويل الصغير والمرأة : دراسة حالة محفظة المرأة اتحاد عام المرأة السودانية


الباحث: هدى أبؤه محمد أبؤه, 2004

المشرف: اسيا مكاوي أحمد



تهدف الدراسة إلى معرفة دور محفظة المرأة في تمويل المشاريع الصغيرة للنساء ولأراء النساء في طريقة التمويل ومعرفة أسباب تقديم المرأة للتمويل والخلفية الإجتماعية والديمقراطية للنساء المستفيدات من أنشطة المحفظة . استخدم  المنهج الوصفي للتحليل ، خلصت الدراسة إلى أن المحفظة لها أثر مقدر على النشاط الاقتصادي أن 62 من النساء أصبحن ذات علاقات اقتصادية واجتماعية وأن 61 من النساء السبب الاساسي لتقديمهن هو زيادة دخل الاسرة وعلية توصي الدراسة بأن تصحب التمويل دورات تدريبية وندوات لتغير علاقات النوع .


الواصفات: التمويل الصغير : المرأة : محفظة المرأة : اتحاد عام المرأة السودانية


The empowerment of Women through Micro-credit Finance Programs: case study Port Sudan Association for Micro-credit Finance (PASED)


By: Nazik Ali Elrayah A. Aziz, 2004

Supervised by: Amna Badri


The study aims to evaluate the level of women’s empowerment as a direct impact of passed in Port Sudan deims, the results of the study revealed that women were granted a high degree of access to credit through PASED’s credit policy, however they were still lacking self-confidence and strength to take large loans to expand their businesses, also the gained control over income earned with high sense of economic independence. It was concluded that PASED programmer has assisted to assumable degree in solving women’s economic problems and to develop awareness among women’s concerns.

Keywords: Women, Development, Empowerment, Micro-finance Programmers, ACORD, PASED


The Legal Status of Female Genital Mutilation under the Sudanese Laws


By: Sonia Abdel Aziz Malik, 2004

Supervised by: Balghis Badri


The study is concerned with the legal status of Female Genital Mutilation under the Sudan laws, it is aim to analyze the Sudan current constitution provisions to see how far it protects women and young girls from the practice of FGM, it examines the historical evolution of the penal coded concerning the prohibition of FGM from 1946 to 1991 it analyzes the criminal code provisions to ascertain whether its provisions could be applied to criminalize FGM. The conclusion of the analysis of the 1991 criminal code provisions is released that the practice of FGM is viewed as legally prohibited under the 1991 criminal code general sections of international injury section 138 and hurt section 146. 

Keywords: Female Genital Mutilation, FGM, Human Rights, Sudan Context


Marriage customs in a changing context: a case study of Shilluk in Jebel Aulia Displaced camp


By: Cangjwok Ajak Deng, 2004

Supervised by: Samia Elnagar


The study objectives are to figure out how marriage among the shilluks generates gender disparities and explains resulting gender power relations and to throw light on aspects of gender power relation promoted by marriage, the findings of the study showed that the choice for marriage is male’s responsibilities, with male’s domination over the sphere of decision making, also the findings showed that there was change in the first stage in marriage procedures, it reveal the different way in dowry payment.

Keywords: Marriage, Feminist Perspective, Concept, Power, origin, Economic Context


The Factors that Influence the Use of Contraceptives among the Working Women in West Kordofan


By: Osharia Mohammed Elamin, 2004

Supervised by: Nafisa Badri


The study aims at identification of the knowledge, attitudes and practice of contraception among the study target, beside that it aims to identify the factors socio-cultural, economic, political and service that influence the use of these methods, the findings revealed the wide range of knowledge about modern contraceptives especially the pills, with a low rate of use, mainly constrained by the socio-cultural factors, the study recommended to involve men in family planning activities with comprehensive client’s education, will be of vital importance for more knowledge about benefits of child spacing.

Keywords: Family Planning, ICPD, Beijin Declaration, Feminist Perspectives, Planning Families


Factors that Influence the Use of Modern Family Planning Methods among Sudanese Couples


By: Mikelina Emilio Tibi Maku, 2004

Supervised by: Nafisa Badri


The study aimed to examined and analyze the possible factors that has contributed to low use of modern family planning methods among Sudanese couples in Abu Zeid Block, the findings showed that all the women and ninety-five percent of the men are aware of modern methods of FP, but there is a variation in the knowledge of specific methods of FP, men have higher knowledge than women, recommended family planning units must be gender sensitive in their setting, because somen men may feel shy to ask for details explanation of their methods.

Keywords: Family Planning, Socio-economic, Family Planning Services, Men, Feminists Vision


الفاعلية السياسية للمرأة اليمنية 1990 – 2000


الباحث: فاطمة جبران على المقبليى, 2003

المشرف: عطا البطحانى



تهدف الدراسة إلى استقصاء فاعلية المشاركة السياسية للمرأة اليمنية في الفترة من 1990-2000م . هذه الفترة شهدت تحولاُ على مستوى القطر اليمني في الديمقراطية والتعددية السياسية وإطلاق الحريات ويتم تلمس تأثير هذه التحولات على وضع المرأة وكيفية استثمارها للمناخ الديمقراطي المتاح ، أثبت الدراسة أن المؤسسة الذكورية صاغت التاريخ اليمني وبالتالي حجمت أدوار النساء على مر العصور مما خلق اشكالات إجتماعية وثقافية اقتصادية انعكست على أدوار النساء وأظهرتهن على مستوى دوني وكما أثبت الدراسة أن هناك معالجات لهذه الإشكالية يمكن من خلالها أن تبدأ المرأة في خلق حالة من المساواة للمشاركة في صنع القرار والذي لن يتانى إلا في ظل مناخ ديمقراطي يساعد النساء على المشاركة السياسية .


الواصفات: السياسة : النوع الاجتماعي : النظام السياسي : اليمن : المنظمات النسوية : القيادات النسوية


Yemeni Women’s Political Participation during 1990 – 2000

By: Fatima Gubran Ali, 2003

Supervised by: Ali Albathan 


This study aims at reasoning the effective political participation of Yemen women during 1990 -2000. The period witnessed great change and development in the whole country. It was reflected in democracy, transparency, different political parties and more effective freedoms and rights. This change has a noticeable impact on women’s status. Data is collected from documents, and published materials. A case study of 8 women working as political activists in a number of political parties, and leaders in women’s institutions is conducted. In addition a study of “focus groups” of women dealing with grass roots of other political parties was also consulted

The study reveals that male participation had a unique role in the development of Yemen’s political history, and that role has diminished the participation of women in politics throughout the proceeding countries. It has created social, cultural and economic problems reflected in the negative role of women in political development. The following two hypothesis are attempts to remedy and solve the problem; through them, women can fight for their rights, equality and empowerment and will pave the way for a healthy and feasible democratic environment with full participation in decision making and effective political change through women’s domination to civil society and not vice-versa 

Keywords: participation, democracy, rights and freedom


اختبار الشريك وتأثير التمايز الاجتماعي في المجتمع الحضري ( دراسة حالة في مدينة أمدرمان)


الباحث: أم السعد محمد مضوي, 2003

المشرف: تاج الانبياء على الضوى



تهدف الدراسة لمعرفة التغيرات الاقتصادية والاجتماعية التى تؤثر في اختبار الشريك اضافة إلى معرفة دور الأسرة والنوع في ذلك وايضاُ معرفة العوامل التقليدية على اختيار الشريك . خلص الدراسة إلى أن هناك تمايزا طبقياُ في عملية الاختيار نتيجة للاختلافات الاقتصادية والاجتماعية وهذا بدورة أثر في عملية الاختيار الشريك فنجد أن لكل طبقة اختيار مختلفة عن الطبقة الأخري . يوصي البحث بالمزيد من التوعية والارشاد للأباء والأمهات بعدم التدخل في عملية اختيار الشريك وإحترام افكار البنت والولد في عملية الاختيار وتوعية الأباء والامهات عن طريق وسائل الاعلام لازالة الفوارق الاجتماعية والتمايز الطبقي في عملية اختيار الشريك بالنسبة للأبناء والبنات


الواصفات: الاختيار : الشباب : الاختيار التقليدي : الاختيار الحديث : التغير الاجتماعي : التمايز الاجتماعي : الاتجاهات


The Impact of Social Stratification on Spouse Selection. A Case Study of Omdurman City


By: Omalsaad Mohamed Modawi, Nov. 2003

Supervised by: Tag Elanbia Ali Aldawi


The research aims to understand the process of spouse selection in terms of social stratification. It evaluates the economic status, social class, gender and family influence on spouse selection. A conceptual framework was drawn from books, periodicals, and previous research, in addition to primary data sources. The study proved the difference in spouse selection differs between traditional and the modern social stratification due to social changes, social class and difference in generations. Social class proved to have impact on the process of selection as well as the apparent gender difference where men have a greater chance to choose partners than women do. The researcher provides some recommendation and suggestions for awareness-raising among young generations and further studies in the field.

 Keywords: spouse selection, family, awareness-raising


Factors that Influence the Use of Contraceptives among the Working Women in West Kordofan


By: Osharia Mohamed Elamin, 2003

Supervised by: Nafisa Badri


This research is an explorative study which examines factors influencing the use of contraceptives among working women in Gubeish town. It also focuses on the concept of family planning as part of the reproductive health component. The data were collected from married women at reproductive age using semi-structured and free flowing interviews with women, senior hospital staff and pharmaceuticals. Findings revealed a wide range of knowledge about modern contraceptives especially pills, which are not widely used as a result of socio cultural factors. Other factors influencing contraceptive usage is the service delivery system and husbands who control whether or not their wife will use contraceptives. Research recommends more men involvement in family planning activities together with comprehensive education on the method.

Keywords: contraceptives, involvement, decision making


The Perception of Honor and Honor Killing among Hawazma Men and Women in Abu Karshola Area of South Kordofan State


By: Hala Hassan Siddig, March 2003

Supervised by: Samia El Hadi Elnager 


This research aims at investigating the perceptions of Hawazma men and women about honor and honor killings. It also investigates the factors that influence the phenomenon of honor killing and the impact of the practice on gender roles and relations. The researcher used quantitative methods including data collections, key informative interviews with three Umdas of Baggarra clans in Abu Karshola and three focused group discussions in Garb Elmadarees and Um Jazi camp.

Findings showed that the patriarchal system is well institutionalized in the study community and supported by the current state. Gender roles in tribal contexts challenges are very limited and the grip of patriarchs is still strong in many aspects of life, despite education and the urbanization process. The Hawazma men and women perception about honor and honor killing is very symbolic and is always associated to women's wealth and dignity. Moreover, honor is not only restricted to the one who commit adultery, but extends to the family and the entire tribe. Gender differentiation is very clear in honor incidents. The Hawazma communities perceive honor killing as a means of removing shame.

Keywords: tribal context, honor, wealth and dignity


Women’s National Identity. A Case Study of Southern Women in Khartoum


By: Maryam Malik Badri, February 2003

Supervised by: Atta El Batthani


The research attempts to identify the cultural and social status of southern women in Khartoum in relation to their Northern counterparts and the Sudanese society at large. The study revealed the terrible hardship of economic domestic, social and cultural aspects of Southern women. Southern uneducated women are less fortunate and politicized than their educated sisters in the North. They are disadvantaged in material aspect which hinders them from being able to offer part of their culture at a national level.

Keywords: identity, disadvantage, society, culture


Gender Sensitivity in Sudanese Labor and Employment Laws Working Women’s Views and Experiences


By: Zeinab Abbas Badawi, February 2003

Supervised by: Amel Abdel Rahman Hamza


The study checks gender sensitivity in the Sudanese labor and employment laws. It analyzes working women’s views and experiences. The aim of the study is to understand power relations in employment laws using gender analysis. A sample of 80 working women was selected from governmental and private sectors. Mixed methods of data collection were used. Research revealed that the majority of working women has very low information and awareness on employment laws. Access to information on labor and employment laws is a major obstacle to working women. Most respondents think that employment laws lack gender sensitivity. This is clear in the insufficient protection of maternity under labor legislations; in addition to inadequate legal protection of issues concerning women needs and interests.

The study recommends that the state should take effective actions towards the law’s reform and change in labor legislations in order to strengthen gender sensitivity, and meet the demand and needs of working women to enable them for effective participation in the community.

Keywords: employment law, power relations, gender


Perceptions towards Remunerating the Unpaid Reproductive labor


By: Nafisa Essadig Bedri, February 2003

Supervised by: Samia Elnager


The study aims to perceive the readiness of Sudanese community and policy making towards remunerating the unpaid reproductive labor. The research poses the hypothesis that gender knowledge may enhance acceptance of the notion of unpaid reproductive labor. Ahfad University for Women (AUW) staff was the study population as they are expected to have gender knowledge and exposure to gender issues. The study examines the staff’s opinion on adding unpaid labor to the Gross National Product. A tool of collecting data was a semi structured questionnaire and in depth interviews. Data showed that female respondents were younger and unmarried compared to male respondents who were married that factor might influence their perception of remunerating the unpaid reproductive labor. Study recommends further action for policy makers.

Keywords: reproductive labor, policy, gender issues


The Image of Sudanese Women on the Family Program at Omdurman Radio Broadcast


By: Magda Awad, 2002

Supervised by: Balghis Badri


The study analyzes women’s image on the family program at a Sudanese radio station. The program discusses issues of concern in relation to women’s private domestic sphere. Due to lack of understanding between gender, is bias of the program is towards the male. The study shows the gap between what is broadcasted in a women’s program and what the sample listeners want from the program. There is a clear indication that communication policies marginalize women and that program producers and planners do not take women into account when creating programs. A sample group of listeners wanted to draw more attention to the productive role of women. Emphasis should be made to a women’s rights program. The study recommends improvement in women's program at the radio station to a more positive image. It should take class, age, geographical and social differences into consideration.

Keywords: gender bias, broadcast programs, promotion


The Sudanese Islamic Movement Perceptions of Women’s Rights


By: Karima Fath Elrahman Abdien, 2002

Supervised by: Balghis Badri


The research aimed to generate information on Sudanese Islamic movement’s discourses towards women’s rights. It compares between different Islamic discourses and finds out which discourse consider gender equality and is congruent with human rights principles, and which one contradicts or differs from the aim of the principles of gender equality and the empowerment of women. Furthermore the study aimed to delineate the gap in perceptions between leader and youth members towards issues of women’s rights. The research found out that Sudanese Islamic movements differ in their discourses towards women’s rights. National Islamic Front discourse relatively empowers women to gain women as political allies. Republican Brothers discourse empowers women, but recession of their thought makes its impact on Sudanese women status insignificant. The Ansar Alsona Almohmdia group discourse completely confines women in the reproductive role and subordinate them. There are no significant gender or generation variations in all the movement’s leaders and youth members in their thoughts and perceptions towards women’s rights. However, slight generation variation is found within National Islamic Front Sample, and leaders showed more relative progressive thoughts than among male students.

Keywords: rights, Islamic discourses, equality, youth


Factors Influence the Legislation of Personal Status Law. A case Study of Sudanese Personal Status Laws on Divorce and Polygyny


By: Alia Farog Mustafa, Nov. 2002

Supervised by: Balghis Badri


The study examines the legislation of Sudanese personal status laws and the analysis of the socio-cultural and political context that impact this legislation. It answers the question of why the absolute right of man to commit divorce and polygyny was not restricted in Sudanese law. A purposive sample technique is used from 11 specialists both male and female in areas of jurisprudence, law, politics, Islamic studies and women's movement leaders. The study analyzes two groups of factors which affect personal status legislation. The first group is composed of religious factors within Islamic Sharia from Holy Quran, Sunnah and Fiqh. The second group includes sociocultural and political factors as well as the role of women movement. The study revealed that due to different Islamic Fiqh schools, there is no inhibition for the legislation of restriction for a man’s right to commit divorce and polygyny. The socio-cultural and political context especially patriarchal ideology on society and state level has a considerable role in preventing the legislation of such a restriction. The study found that patriarchal ideology influences the judiciary to be selective and biased by focusing on Quranic verses and Fiqh article that make it difficult to legalize restriction on divorce and polygyny. However, there is flexibility if a holistic approach to Islam and other Quranic verses are taken. Political leaders in Sudan did not give the issue priority because it contradicts the male interest and fails to protect the gender power. Women's movement attempt to get more rights on personal law, but failed due to tradition and unequal gender relations.

Keywords: legislation, personal law, polygyny


Male Perceptions on Female Genital Mutilation


By: Mariam Mohamed Ali Mohamoud, April 2002

Supervised by: Balghis Badri


The research focuses on understanding the male’s perceptions and attitudes towards Female Genital Mutilation. It analyzes the different perceptions as well as identifies the role of target ministries in FGM eradications. Research targeted the prominent role of authorities from the ministry of Health and Religious Affairs. The study reveals the awareness of the sample population about FGM. They reveal an agreement to establish a national campaign against FGM. Decisions should be more clear to ensure a direct law to prohibit the practice. Research recommends strategies and plans for FGM eradication; in addition to conducting workshops and seminars to inform community leaders about FGM hazard and adopting policies to eradicate the practice.

Keywords: FGM, eradication policies, perceptions


Patriarchy and Sudanese Women Pioneers: 1940 – 1950


By: Alwyia Elfil, January 2002

Supervised by: Atta Al Battahani


The study reveals Sudanese women’s elite role in political activity during the period of the 1940-1950 and the impact of patriarchy on this role. Pioneer women were interviewed. Group discussion was carried out. The study confirmed that elite women did not challenge traditions of patriarchy. They adopt a wise and gradual course with due respect to the prevailing social values. The study showed that one of the clearest features that formulated the role of the vanguard is that 80% of them were born and brought up in Omdurman, the national capital of the Sudan. This is significant because the graduate Club (which was the center of political parties) was located in the same town, also the newly born Communist Party was the first and the only party that include special program in its political agenda for Sudanese women’s development. This attracted a considerable number of pioneers to acquire the membership of the party. The stable family life and support and encouragement from family had helped those pioneers to be positively politically active. Finally, pioneer women did not face any traditional segregation. This contributed to their political involvement without having to suffer any psychological complexes.

Keywords: elite, patriarchy, political involvement


Changes in Gender Roles among Eritrean Refugees in Khartoum


By: Amel Suliman Adam, January 2002

Supervised by: Samia Elnager


The study highlights the changes in gender roles that occur in Eritrean refugees. It reflects their perception towards the changes. It represents the socio economic context under which Eritreans live. The study revealed that the new context of the refugees affected their gender roles; especially men as being the productive figures in their families. Men participate in domestic activities particularly when women are employed. Both men and women consider these changing roles as a temporary phase. Men are looking forward to going back home and resuming their normal role as household heads. Data has been collected from males and females in El Dyoum ElSharkia, Khartoum, through group discussion and interviews.

Keywords: gender, refugee, changes


Sudanese Men and Women’s Knowledge and Attitudes Towards CEDAW


By: Amel Mohamed Salih, January 2002

Supervised by: Balghis Badri


The study examines the extent to which Sudanese are aware and knowledgeable of CEDAW. What is their perception, attitudes on the convention and the reasons given for the non ratification of the convention. It also examines the factors that affect achieving gender equality in Sudanese society. What are the different standpoints in relations to gender relation and equality? Methods used for data collection are mainly questionnaires and interviews. The main queries of the research aimed at knowing the awareness and knowledge of CEDAW. The sample of the interviews include five key persons working in the field of women’s issues and human rights. Interview questions aimed at knowing the problems that face Sudan’s ratification of CEDAW and how they can be overcome. Literature review explains that non-ratification is influenced by the existence of the patriarchal system in the Sudanese society. The influence of Islam on gender roles and the domination of the state by the Islamic fundamentalists.

The study revealed Generic knowledge of CEDAW is statistically high, but detailed knowledge is low even among hose with higher education. The source of this knowledge is media, UN publications, workshops, seminars and internet. The study concludes that little hope exists for the ratification of CEDAW. The study reveals that respondents have favorable attitudes to women’s public and political rights and have start to change their attitudes and behaviors in private life. Another finding is that the problems facing the ratification of CEDAW are political, religious, and legal in addition to the patriarchal system and unbalanced gender relations. The study recommends lobbying and alliances between supporters of CEDAW to reveal misconceptions associated with it, a progressive interpretation of the holy Quran around the issue of gender equality, and women’s status in Islam; the need for independent women movement and organizations which should work for women’s interests and rights.

Keywords: knowledge, perception, CEDAW, equality


Women’s Work in Petty Trade of Handicraft Production In Omdurman Market


By: Thorya Suliman El Khalifa Abdulahi, 2001

Supervised by: Samia El Hadi El-Nagar


Study was conducted in Khartoum State and Omdurman market. It aims at examining the socioeconomic condition of women, and the challenges they face. Do women coordinate their production and reproduction activities? Results shows that women suffer because they do not combine domestic and market work, but they try to empower themselves so as to take part in the decision making process.

Keywords: socio-economic, domestic, market


Ahfad University Students’ Opinions on Sexual Harassment


By: Sundus Majzoub Abdelmahmoud Alarabi, April 2001

Supervised by: Balghis Badri


Due to the social change and the involvement of women in public life they encountered many problems and restrictions: sexual harassment at workplace and in transport and public arenas are few examples. The study aims to know females respond to sexual harassment in public transport, and the causes which lead males to become violent to women.

Analysis found out that sexual harassment in transport is prevalent and many students respond silently to it. The phenomenon is caused by interconnected factors of a psychological, social and economic nature. However, the main cause is related to the structural inequality in gender relation which give the man the right to use women as a sexual body and at the same time limit her reaction to the violent situation. The findings of the research might help women to reflect on their own experiences in clearer and more positive manner. The research put legal frame that protects women from such practices. Laws against harassment are neither known nor strong enough to deter such behavior. The research recommends the importance of empowerment, and awareness-raising on issues of violent against women.

Keywords: sexual harassment, psychological, gender inequality


The Social Impact of Women’s Program and Activities of Samania, Tayibia, and Garyibia Sufis Tariqa’s


By: Muna Bakri Mohamed Abu Aglaa, 2000

Supervised by: Idris Salim Al Hassan


The research examines the social effect of women's program, and activities of women within the Samania, Tayibia, and Garyibia Sufis Tariqa. Data is collected from primary and secondary sources. Questionnaires and unstructured interviews with various members of the Tariqa are conducted.According to the research women are involved in such activities either through their nearby location to the Tariqa centers, or through their husband's encouragement. Different sectors of the society are affiliated with the Tariqa e.g. doctors, pharmacists, teachers and politicians. The research concluded that Sufism is individual and spiritual centered and women's affiliation with it will not lead to their self-employment or other aspects of social and economic empowerment. It is different from other institutions to which women belong like non government organizations, political parties or trade unions. However some educated women believe that Tariqa’s sects have the potential to address women’s' other needs. A spiritual need is an area which is not addressed by many feminist scholars.

Keywords: spiritual affiliation, social and economic empowerment


Perception and Behavior of both Genders towards Infertility


By: Nahid A/Rahim Hashim, 2000

Supervised by: Balghis Badri


The research investigates behavior of both sexes towards couple infertility. It evaluates the perception of male and female towards infertility and its impact on the marriage stability and women’s status. A qualitative and quantitative approach was used. Questionnaires are distributed to different subjects with different level of education from Khartoum and Ahfad University. A sample was drawn from young university students. The study examined the assumption that infertility is a female problem, it investigates the beliefs of married and unmarried groups on infertility. The study examines causes, means and ways of protecting and avoiding infertility. The results revealed that despite differences in education level, there is no major difference in the attitudes of unmarried groups towards infertility. Having children is a significant issue for marriage stability.

Keywords: perception, infertility, stability, attitudes


The Position of Women Unionists in the High Echelons of the Sudanese Trade Unions


By: Manal Ali Basheir, 2000

Supervised by: Ahmed Hassan El Jack


The research investigates the weak position of Sudanese women unionists in the high echelons of the Sudanese trade unions. It identifies factors hindering women access to leading positions. Data was collected from books, reports and articles. Questionnaires, interviews, life history and focus group discussion were also used. Samples were taken from executive offices at three different levels: Trade Unions, General Trade Unions, and Corporate Trade Unions. Life history was used to know factors constraining women from leading positions in (Tus).

Keywords: trade unions, access, leaders, constraints


Credit Approach and its Impact on Women’s Situation. A Case Study of Area Development Scheme in Central Butane – Gedarif State


By: Zeinab Mohamed Balndia, 2000

Supervised by: Amna El Sadig Badri



The study is carried out in the Area Development Scheme of the Central Butana Area in Gedarif State. It aims to investigate the extent to which the credit approach impacted women’s situation and factors that enhance or benefit women from having access to credit. The study is descriptive and analytical, and quantitative as well as qualitative methods were used. Secondary data is collected from official documents, reports and researches. Primary data is gathered from questionnaires, in addition to group discussions and case study analyses. The findings of the study showed a bottom up approach adopted by the project of Area Development Scheme which has a positive and a negative impact on women. Factors such as illiteracy, tradition, culture, gender division, and poverty are influencing factors for women who are involved in socioeconomic activities. However, research indicates that these factors are dynamic and interact with each other. The study recommends that policy and strategies of the state should promote factors that contribute to socioeconomic activities and poverty alleviation it also emphasize the urge for further research.


Keywords: credit, bottom-up, tradition, culture


Gender Sensitivity in the Policies of the Sudanese Environment Conservation Society (SECS)


By: Wigdan Hassan Idriss, 2000

Supervised by: Amna Rahama



The research is aimed at studying the gender sensitivity of environmental policies of Sudanese Environmental Conservation Society. Its objective is to identify the gender sensitivity of organization policies. It examines policy maker’s perception towards the gender issue; it highlights the implemented policy impact on beneficiaries. A qualitative method of data collection is used, unstructured interviews with policy makers in the organization, and beneficiaries of home nurseries project in Gemoaia Area. Random sample techniques and a stratified sampling were used.

Six policy makers were selected in addition to 10 beneficiaries of Elgemoaia hoarse nurseries project. The study revealed that SECS lack the gender sensitivity in its environmental policies, however; there is room for it to have a gender sensitive policy. This is reflected in gender awareness shown by the majority of the policy maker interviewed. The study sees the importance of increasing gender awareness among policy makers and emphasizing the importance of conducting researches about the environmental policies to be formulated on gender basis.


Keywords: gender sensitivity, policies, environment


Women in Home–based Activities: Conditions of Work and Empowerment


By: Samia Osman Ishag, Dec. 2000

Supervised by: Samia El Hadi El Nagar



The research investigates women home-based activities and their role in women's empowerment. It focuses on the socio economic factors related to women work; specifically the difficulties and challenges they face. The study took place in Khartoum -Banat Area. Thirty women from different age groups were interviewed in home-based activities. The findings reveal that women undertake home-based activities to raise the family income. Home-based production is performed to avoid limitations such as access to market and other domestic responsibilities.


Keywords: empowerment, market access, home-based activities


The Impact of the United Nations Development Program (UNDP) Poverty Alleviation Project in Empowering the Internally Displaced Women in Urban Areas


By: Magda Abdelhamid Tamimi, Dec. 2000

Supervised by: Amna El Saddig Badri



The aim of the study is to asses how UNDP “Urban Upgrading” project on poverty alleviation of the displaced poor and urban settlement managed and succeeded to empower displaced women. The study objective is to develop the urban informal sector through innovative credit and capacity building programms based on bottom up community participation and promotion of the grassroots institutions. The target group is women in Mayo Mandela displacement camp in the Khartoum State. The study was based on the women empowerment framework which introduces five levels of equality as the base for criteria to assess the level of women’s empowerment in any area of social or economic life, namely welfare, access, conscientisation participation, and control. Data is collected from both secondary and primary sources. Despite the fact that women are not part of the UPA project planning, they manage to achieve a high percentage of satisfaction in the activities they perform. The project has managed to involve women in institutional structures at community level, though it was a poor representation.UPA project did not achieve empowerment of displaced women as indicated in the Women’s empowerment Framework, yet it has succeeded to develop awareness among poor communities about women’s issues. It draws women’s attention to new horizons of improving their socioeconomic development. The study indicates that in the long run the project might influence the issue of women empowerment and participation in social development.


Keywords: development programs, poverty alleviation, empowerment


Knowledge and Use of Modern Family Planning Methods in Mayo Hay Elnasr


By: Elham Abdel Rahim El-Amin, Nov. 2000

Supervised by: Samia El Nagar



The study aims at investigating the existing gap between the knowledge and the use of family planning in the Sudan. It also looks into the use of contraceptives and the socio-cultural factors influencing the use and non-use of family planning methods. The study was conducted in Mayo Hay Elnasr, an area where a reproductive health centre has been established. Data were collected by semi-structured interviews with 17 married women and 13 married men.

Research found that women have knowledge on family planning than men. They are aware of male contraceptives. This could be due to the fact that women are more concerned about family planning than men. It also show how reproductive health centre ignore men in their services. The literature reviewed shows that family planning knowledge and usage is determined by a variety of factors such as socio-economic and ideological factors. The government policies also influence these factors. The research recommends stronger gender perspective for studying family planning issues and further research on the subject.


Keywords: knowledge, family planning methods, health centers


Assessing the Quality of Maternal Health Care Services in Khartoum State


By: Sarah Hassan Mohammed Khalil, Sept. 2000

Supervised by: Amna El Sadig Badri



The study examines the quality of maternity health care in the context of reproductive health services. It aims at assessing the quality of care in maternity hospitals. Checking and assessing facility checklists, observation and the perspective of health providers. The main objective of the study is to assess the quality of health services available in health centers and make comparisons between the quality of services in the public and the private maternity hospitals. A conceptual framework is drawn from literature review to assess quality of the health care continuum according to the concept of tructure, process and outcome. The research utilized primary data from checklist, direct observation, and structured interview. The study revealed that the condition of public hospitals is unacceptable regarding quality of service provided, while Doctors’ Clinics are desirable as process and routine examinations dominate the service provided there.


Keywords: reproductive health, facilities, perspectives, quality


Towards Gender Sensitive Policies in Sudan. A Case Study: Sudan National Comprehensive Strategy (1992-2002)


By: Limya Abd El Gaffar Khalafala, April 2000

Supervised by: Amna Badri



The study examines the position of women’s issues and concerns in the process of development planning and implementation. It looks into the role women play or expect to play in the mapping, shaping, and implementation development policy of the country. The research is detailed review of integrating gender issues into development policies in terms of conceptual thinking (frameworks/paradigm) and the actual process of policy identifications, formulation implementation, and evaluation.

Certain results and findings are obtained that include:

- government policies are categorically gender insensitive

- policy makers perception of gender sensitive issues is relatively poor due to their inadequate awareness of gender issues

- cultural norms among both women and men, and suppressing and departure from the convention of social values - initiatives particularly among women towards gender issues are still susceptible and slow.

The study recommends:

- formulation of gender sensitive policy based on rational human rights, social justice and socio economic development.

- the political commitment of ruling regime

- women’s participation in all stage of policy planning and development.


Keywords: policy, implementation, gender sensitivity


The Attitude of University Women Students towards the Selection of Spouses


By: Entisar Ahmed Abdel Hammed, 1999

Supervised By: El Haj Bilal Omer



The study highlights the position of young women in Sudanese families, and their ability to make the decision of selecting their spouses. It looks into how the influence of a women's family and how changes in society affect the criteria on which choosing a spouse is based. The basic outcome of the study is that women have certain expectation for future husband which is mainly determined by the customs, norms and traditions of their families and societies. The economic factor is also considered by families for the future spouse. Within such social context women have no real choices to make. Unless this concept is changed women cannot play an effective role in decision making in the marriage process.


Keywords: social, economic context, decision making


How Patriarchy Operates in the Family Institution (A Case Study of the Dinka Tribe)


By: Alzahra Mohamed Ahmed Almahboub, 1999

Supervised by: Balghis Badri



The study is concerned with the family as a basic institution for transmitting society’s values. It deals mainly with Dinka male-female relationships, the marital couple relationship in particular. The study aims to show the origin of the Dinka patriarchy, and how it works in their society. The research findings reveal some a few changes among the educated Khartoum based marital relations in the following areas of division of labor, leisure time, economic independency of Dinka women, and the decline of male elders influence in marriage issues. However a strong system of patriarchy still exists when forming gender identity. Though education and economic situation are key factors for change, yet they do not lead to substantial change in marital relations nor in the ideology that influence it. The study concluded that though patriarchy is institutionalized in Dinka culture, there are possibilities for change in gender relations to be of an equalitarian nature.


Keywords: patriarchy, education, and gender identity


Factors Influencing Women’s Participation in Community Organizations. A Case Study of Abassiya Area-Omdurman Province


By: Tayseer El Fatih Abdel A’al, 1999

Supervised by: Samia El Nager



It is a descriptive analytical study aiming to investigate the extent and nature of women's participation in community organizations. It looks into factors that enhance or constrain their involvement. Data were collected from official documents, scientific papers, and reports. Questionnaires, in-depth interviews and conceptual framework drawn from literature were reviewed. Research findings showed that women’s participation in community organizations and decision making level is weak. Education, gender division of labor, patriarchy, gender ideology, socialization, and absence of democracy are very determining factors that influence women's participation and involvement in organized activities. This study recommends promoting all factors that enhance women's participation in community organizations.


Keywords: education, socialization, and participation


The Impact of Male Out-Migration on Women’s Role and Status in Sudan


By: Khadiga El Sayed Saeed, 1999

Supervised by: Balghis Badri



The study depicts the impact of the out-migration of husbands on the role and status of the wives in Sudan. It investigates the reasons of out-migration and reasons that cause migrants to leave their families behind. The study revealed a change that leads to an independent life for the wives. The out-migration has related problems such as relations between wives and their children, families, and their husbands, and the ability to make decisions traditionally made by the husbands.


Keywords: migrants, decision making process, status


Children's Games: Towards Different Gender Roles


By: Ghada Hatim El Taher, 1999

Supervised by: Samia El Hadi ElNager



The study aims at studying children’s games and the variation according to gender. It investigates parent’s perceptions, and attitudes, and teachers as main components of a child socialization process. The issue is tackled from the gender and feminist’s studies perspective. Data has been collected to reveal the perceptions, of parents, teacher and children about children’s games. The study took place at Shembat El Hila and El Shab School.The study found that boy’s games that carry characteristics of masculinity as described by the patriarchal system, and girls’ games exhibit female behavior which is defined as limited space, calm and non violence. Children are pre-socialized towards their games. Choice of games is determined by gender more than any other factor. These differences shape children's perceptions about what they should play, where and why.


Keywords: social context, socialization, gender identity


Female as Head of Household: Dependent versus Independent Perception


By: May Ali Babiker, 1999

Supervised by: Samia El Nager



The study explores difficulties encountered by female as heads of household, their perception about the new role and how they evaluate their experience. A conceptual framework was drawn from literature review, books, academic and scientific reports. Primary data were collected from unstructured interviews of 15 to 25 female head of households heads in ElSafia and Banat respectively.Findings of the research showed women classified and perceived themselves some as independent, relatively independent and still dependent. Women identify factors that influence their perception as: economic situation, socialization factors and absence or presence of men in their lives. Some women state that they face patriarchal attempts to bring them under control, these evaluated their experience and self esteem others viewed their experience as unsatisfactory. The economic level proves to have impact on how women perceive themselves. The study recommends promoting and enhancing factors that help female heads of household become more independent.


Keywords: household, independent, economic, socialization


Marital Relationship. A Case Study from Sudanese Families


By: Mai Izeldeen Osman, 1999

Supervised by: Balghis Badri



The study focuses on analyzing the dynamics of marital relation, and how far power is distributed within the family. The assumption of the research is that the husband dominates and controls decisions in the family. The study examines how roles are formulated and what factors contribute to sustaining and shaping these roles. From a radical feminist perspective, this study considers egalitarian marital relation to a sharing of decisions and domestic tasks between spouses indicates women’s empowerment. However, it stresses the fact that women need to have educational and income resources to achieve egalitarian marital relations be able to contribute in family budget.The research found that: Education plays a strong role in enabling wives to participate in the decision-making process but bears no influence in changing gender division of labor. An independent income of female does not have a crucial role in women’s status as a decision maker; however women have great chance of domination if they are the sole supporter of the family. The basic source of gender identity formulation is the male domination and women subordination role within the family; this is due to socialization influence from early childhood. The study recommends women’s needs for education, and economic power to change marital relationship to egalitarian ones. Patriarchal ideology according to the study needs to be replaced by a new value system that upholds non-domination and acceptance of gender equality.


Keywords: gender identity, rights, resources, empowerment


Domestic Violence between Spouses: Realities and Responses


By: Sawsan Ali Mohamed Elawad, 1999

Supervised by: Amira Badri



It is a descriptive analytical study which is carried out among low income families in Sudan specifically in the areas of Bahri and Omdurman. The study aims at investigating incidents of domestic violence between spouses. It looks at ways in which women respond to their husbands’ abuse. The study examines the causes of husbands’ abuse, in addition to causes that lead to conflict between spouses it examine whether these conflicts are the primary cause for initiating violent behavior by husbands. Information was obtained from five case studies where a qualitative method was used.

Research found that domestic violence is caused by many interconnected factors; however, the main cause is related to the structural inequality in gender relations. This is due to social, economic and legal institution factors within the society where inequality not only keeps women in inferior positions compared to their counterparts but also limits her choices when dealing with domestic violence situation.


Keywords: domestic violence, economic social factors


Employed Women and Domestic Responsibilities: Perceptions, Challenges and Strategies


By: Widad Ali Abdel Rahman, 1999

Supervised by: Balghis Badri



The aim of the study is to examine the influence of waged labor women on the gender division of labor within the family. The objective of the study is to see whether women contribute to the family income from the wage they earn, and whether this affects their rights and obligations within the family; to highlight wage laborers perceptions on the prevailing gender division within families; to detect women’s coordinating mechanisms to resolve the conflict in the dual role they perform.

A mixed method is used in the study: questionnaire, interviews to provide qualitative data on women’s experience and live situations. The findings revealed that women’s work and the contribution they make to family income has some influence the division of domestic tasks. According to the research women adopt some strategies to lessen the gender gap and bring more equality within the family.


Keywords: division of labor, conflict, and equality


Sudanese Women’s Perceptions and Right towards Family Planning


By: Nawal Arbab El Saaed, 1999

Supervised by: Amna El Sadig Badri



The study looks into perceptions and rights of Sudanese women towards family planning. It aims at exploring women’s rights, access, and decisions on usage of family planning methods. It also analyzes the socio-cultural factors that hinder women from using family planning methods. Primary and secondary data were used. Group discussion was formed. Outcome of data were analyzed through content analysis techniques.

The study findings are: Women’s perception of family planning is seen as appropriate; however, some women have inadequate information. There is a consensus on the importance of family planning for both mother and child health, but women are discouraged from using contraceptives due to belief that it has a negative impact on their lives. Most women expressed the need to use contraceptives, but they are reluctant to use them until they get clarification from Islamic perspective. There is a complete agreement that men decide upon the number of children, and have a preference to have boys which explains and emphasizes gender inequality.


Keywords: information, rights, family planning


Health Seeking Behavior regarding infertility: A case Study of Jebail Altina Area


By: Rasha Osman Hamad, 1999

Supervised by: Balghis Badri



The study identifies unbalance gender relations and examines gender dimensions in the health seeking behavior of infertile couples. The research assumes that husband and wife practice different behaviors of seeking help regarding infertility. Wives are blamed by the society for infertility problems; they are also subjected to different social consequences of infertility such as divorce, polygamy or any other social and psychological stresses. The main research finding is that men and women go through a different process in their health seeking behavior; the social impact of infertility and the reactions to infertility is gender specific. Other factors are also covered by the study such as relatives, wife’s employment and the role of education role on the subject.


Keywords: infertility, divorced, polygamy, education


The Role of Sudanese Women in War and Peace Situation


By: Nada Mustafa Habash, 1999

Supervised by: Amna S. Badri



The study aims to investigate women’s role in war and peace situations. The main objectives of the study are: to highlight women’s role in war situations and its impact on them. To investigate women’s involvement in the peace building process; find out how women conceptualize peace and the peace building process, and the approaches women use to be involved in the peace building process; and the factors that hinder women’s effective participation in the peace building process. The study used secondary data from previous literature and primary data from interviews. A sample was taken at two different stages: from women’s organization working in peace and (second stage) from women representatives of those organizations.

The research findings are: women conceptualize peace as love, security and development; at the official level women’s involvement is very weak; empowerment is a popular mechanism used to involve women in the peace process; and finally, family institutions and patriarchy at both family and state levels is an obstacle blocking women’s participation in the peace process.


Keywords: peace, involvement, effective participation


Factors that Influence Sudanese Women’s Political Participation


By: Awadiya Mohamed Ahmed Yahya, 1999

Supervised by: Asia Makawi & Balghis Yousif Badri



The research investigates the factors that influence Sudanese women’s political participation. It also investigates the extent to which women’s political participation is realized, and what efforts women’s political leaders played to enhance women’s participation in politics. Preliminary data was collected for the period 1985 -1989 (the third democratic period). Methodology used was case study and interviews with key informants, in addition to secondary data collected from documents and publications. The outcome of the study features such factors as socio-economic and culture influence Sudanese women participation in politics. The study disproved the fact that women’s political leaders played a limited role in enhancing women participation in politics in the period 1985-1989. The study formulated recommendations to policy makers, political parties, women’s groups and women’s organizations to enhance and take action for women’s political participation in the future.


Keywords: participation, politics, culture


Perceptions and Attitude Towards Women’s Acquisition to the Right to Divorce Themselves


By: Azza Mamoun Monawar, 1999

Supervised by: Balghis Badri



The research examines knowledge of women on the Isma right and attitudes and perceptions towards the acquisition of Isma which means “wife’s right to divorce herself”. The main purpose of the study is the debate among scholars that Isma acquisition is a major indicator of women’s empowerment and changes in men’s attitude from patriarchy. Questions were asked in order to measure factors behind women’s knowledge or ignorance of their legal marital rights. Certain aspects were tackled and highlighted for instance images of the ideal future husband and wives, knowledge about women’s right to Isma as a legal and religious right, respondent’s response toward delegating Isma to women, their perception of the existing divorce laws and their aspiration for Law reform.The results of the study revealed the stereotyped images of conjugal roles that perceive women as mothers and wives and men as maintainers and protectors of females. These stereotypes highlight the patriarchal ideology’s dominancy. Delegating Isma right to women proved to be opposed by all male and female respondents. Most respondents claim knowledge about Isma right but they did not know that it has a religious base. Indeed they thought of it as a civil right. The study revealed that although the law is considered as an important legal system, it is not acceptable for solving personal relations in Sudanese society. The extended family plays an effective role in supporting and protecting women and securing the family unit.

Sudanese society is seen by the study as a conservative, patriarchal society where a combination between Islamic religious beliefs and the social reality of the patriarchal system construct norms, values and other factors which ascribe and define appropriate gender behavior and roles.

The research indicates that normative systems often operate as a socio-cultural barrier that particularly prevents women from exercising their marital rights, especially the Isma right. It emphasizes that Isma right is a political issue, and needs political attention and social transformation in both gender roles and behaviors. It recommends women’s group for a
revolutionary movement to press changes to reach effectively the ultimate goal of women’s empowerment.


Keywords: right, divorce, Isma, patriarchy


State Power on the Female Body


By: Nafisa Badri, 1999

Supervised by: Samia El Nager



The aim of the study is to investigate women’s views on the Hijab. The study analyze the awareness and conception of women to their body, it also examines how the State regulates and practices these ideas, and how all these regulations affect women’s choices. The study utilized Foucault’s conception of power and its relation to the body as conceptual framework for analyzing the data. Primary data was collected with structured interviews; also, secondary data was used from materials and publications. The study revealed that women’s perceptions of their body revolve around sexuality and how its exposure causes Fitna. Furthermore results show that women are unaware of the State political intention about enforcing the Hijab. The study recommends further research on the subject.


Keywords: Hijab, sexuality, State politics


Gender Identity Formulation and its Impact on the Status of Women in Zaghawa Tribe


By: Madina Hussein Dousa, 1999

Supervised by: Balghis Badri



The study focuses on gender identity formulation and its impact on the status of Zaghawa women living in Khartoum and Omdurman. It also aims at providing data on how gender identity is formulated in the Zaghawa context, the impact it has on the status of women, and changes that occurred in the urban context. Research found out that Zaghawa society is a patriarchal society. Female's experience gender inequality throughout their life cycle, women are socialized to carry domestic as well as productive tasks. There is discrimination in education, Zaghawa view future value of education for men rather than women, they are considered to be temporary members in their society. Women carry productive and reproductive roles, nevertheless, their social value compared to men is devalued. The issue of sexuality, mainly virginity, is highly valued. The honor of the family is invested in women, who are expected to uphold the family honor. The study found that change occurred is limited. Chances to education, economic resources, and politics are allocated to men. The study recommends the empowerment of Zaghawa women to have more access to education, and challenge all forms of sexual discrimination, whether represented in methods of socialization or culture that promote subordinate identity.


Keywords: gender identity, socialization, discrimination


Women As Executive Managers in the Sudanese Banking System. Experience and Challenges


By: Leena Omar Alim, 1999

Supervised by: Amna Elsaddig Badri



The study examines the experiences of top executive women working within the Sudanese banking system. It focuses on those who have reached these higher positions in the banking hierarchy. What are the factors and obstacles which hinder women in executive managers in the banking system? The study aims to show the Sudanese context of women in management and to increase this amount of literature in the field. The method used for data collection is interview with 14 women who have already obtained these positions. Questionnaires were distributed to one hundred men/women bankers. A purposive sample system is used. Responses revealed that women face difficulties in reaching the position due to socialization, male biasness and gender hierarchy of State power. The study also revealed that women reaching top positions is a political issue that needs political attention as well as social transformation which needs to be tackled by women themselves. Their collective movement will help them to reach better and more fair positions in the future.


Keywords: executive, obstacles, socialization, biasness


Poverty, Gender Dimension, and Economic Policies


By: Amal Hussein Mohamed, 1999

Supervised by: Amna Ahmed Rahama



The research aims to identify factors that determine gender dimension on poverty, especially socio-cultural and economic factors. It shows the effect of economic policies, particularly Structural Adjustment Programs (SAPs), and how gender dimension has an effect on urban women in Omdurman. The study examines how women carry burden of economic adjustment, work long hours and increase their workload by performing more activities in the informal sector at a devastating social cost. Due to liberalization and privatization policies, cut in health, education, employment and welfare services, women suffered unemployment, vulnerability and impoverishment. Data was collected from thirty women through interviews, group discussion, publications, and research studies on poverty, and economic policies to show women’s roles in poverty and their coping strategies. The study found that those adjustment policies increase women’s responsibilities and workload.


Keywords: gender dimensions, SAP, social cost


Sudan Economic Crisis: Gender Dimensions and Survival Strategies


By: Manal Abdel Aziem Siddig Mohammed, April 1999

Supervised by: Samya El Nagar



The research study of the economic crisis in Sudan, accelerated since 1970. It examines the gender sensitivity of the literature on Sudan economic crisis. The aim of the study is to reflect on different responses from both male/ female headed households towards the crisis situation. The research discusses gender insensitivity of the economic discipline and presents a conceptual framework of the dynamics of patriarchy. It also examines the economic crisis in Sudan. The major findings of the study are: most literature on Sudan economic crisis is insensitive to gender and responses and resources available to male heads and female headed households are different.


Keywords: gender insensitivity, patriarchy, economic crisis


A Socio-Economic Perspective on Women’s Roles in Development. A Case Study of Displaced Women, Population and Development Project in Hay Elbaraka Area


By: Nadia Ahmed El-Amin, Jan. 1999

Supervised by: Osman Badri



The study looks into the impact of the development project on changing women gender roles from a socio-economic perspective. The displaced women of the population and development project in Hay Elbaraka are the case studied. The assumption of the study is that the success of development is related to women’s participation in the decision making process. A random sample is used to collect primary data, in addition to secondary data from different sources. The main finding is that project has succeeded in developing the socioeconomic qualities in women, employing indigenous women in income generating enterprises and promoting social transformation through cohesion among women. The research recommends the incorporation of women in the mainstream of development.


Keywords: displaced, development, decision-making


Civil War in the Nuba Mountains: In search of Gender Dimension


By: Maha Abdullahi Elamir, Nov. 1998

Supervised by: Amna Ahmed Rahama



The study analyzes the impact of armed conflict from gender perspective with particular reference to women's situation in the Nuba Mountains. The basic assumption of the study is that the armed conflict situation increases women’s vulnerability and marginalizes her status in the society. It also assumes that women shouldn’t be looked at as victims of war but actors and participants in decision-making in conflict resolution and peace-building. Another assumption of the study is that gender approach to conflict resolution and peace-building is crucial for women to voice her suffering and experience and participate in peace building, rehabilitation and development process. The methodology used is participatory Rapid Appraisal Techniques, semi-structured interviews from migrant women in Khartoum or war displaced women. The main findings of the study: Women under the study are economically independent and play a very active role in the society, however they are still vulnerable and marginalize under the patriarchal ideology that dominate the society. The war and conflict situation increases women’s vulnerability; on the other hand it could be an opportunity for women to be empowered and participate effectively in decision making. An increase in the number of illegitimate children due to rape. To avoid violence, women developed coping mechanism for instance monthly payments of animal quota, or grains to government rebels or militias, or sending children away to avoid their recruitment into Popular Defense Forces.


Keywords: vulnerability, decision-making, peace-building